How Islam came to India and why now it needs to go from India – 8 – cultural destruction of non-Muslims

Posted on August 26, 2008. Filed under: Hindu, India, Islam, Muslims, Politics, religion |

Continued from part 7:

(46) Tarikh-i-Khan Jahan Lodi: The author, Niamatullah, was a historian in the court of the Mughal emperor Jahangir (CE 1605-1628). His Tarikh is practically the same as his Makhzan-i-Afghani except for the memoirs of Khan Jahan Lodi which have been added. Khan Jahan Lodi was one of the most illustrious generals of Jahangiri. The history begins with Adam and comes down to CE 1612 when it was completed. Niamatullah refers to Hindus as “the most notorious vagabonds and rebels.”
Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (CE 997-1030)
Somnath (Gujarat)
“After a long time, in AH 400, Allah… conferred the honour of sultanate on Sultan Mahmud Ghazi, son of Subuktigin… Nine men from among the Afghan chiefs… took to his court and joined his servants… The Sultan… gave to each one of them enamelled daggers and swords, horses of good breed and robes of special quality and, taking them with him, he set out with the intention of conquering Hindustan and Somnat…Rai Daishalim whom some historians have pronounced as Dabshalim or Dabshalam was the great ruler of that country. The Sultan inflicted a smashing defeat on that Raja, demolished and desecrated the idol temples there, and devastated that land of the infidels…”
Sultan Sikandar Lodi (CE 1489-1517)
Dholpur (Madhya Pradesh) “
…Sikandar himself marched on Friday, the 6th Ramzan AH 906 (CE March, 1501), upon Dhulpur; but Raja Manikdeo, placing a garrison in the fort, retreated to Gwalior. This detachment however, being unable to defend it, and abandoning the fort by night, it fell into the hands of the Muhammadan army. Sikandar on entering the fort,…The whole army was employed in plundering and the groves which spread shade for seven kos [about 14 miles] around Bayana were tom up from the roots…
Mandrail (Madhya Pradesh) “In Ramzan of the year 910 (CE 1504), ….he raised the standard of war for the reduction of the fort of Mandrail; but the garrison capitulating, and delivering up the citadel, the Sultan ordered the temples and idols to be demolished, and mosques to be constructed. After leaving Mian Makan and Mujahid Khan to protect the fort, he himself moved out on a plundering expedition into the surrounding country, where he butchered many people, took many prisoners, and devoted to utter destruction all the groves and habitations; and after gratifying and honouring himself by this exhibition of holy zeal he returned to his capital Bayana.”
Udit Nagar (Madhya Pradesh) “In 912,… the Sultan went towards the fort of Awantgar… On the 23rd of the month, the Sultan invested the fort, and ordered the whole army to put forth their best energies to capture it…the gate was forced open by Malik Alau-d din… The Rajputs, retiring within their own houses, continued the contest, and slew their families after the custom of jauhar… the Sultan gave over charge of the fort to Makan and Mujahid Khan, with directions that they should destroy the idol temples, and raise mosques in their places…”
Narwar (Madhya Pradesh) “…The Sultan set out for conquering the fort of Narwar. Those inside the fort asked for refuge when they became helpless because of the dearness of grains and scarcity of water; they sought security of their lives and left the fort together with their goods. The Sultan took over the fort, demolished the temples and idol-houses in it and built mosques”
Mathura (Uttar Pradesh) “The Islamic sentiment (in him) was so strong that he demolished all temples in his kingdom and left no trace of them. He constructed sarais, bazars, madrasas and mosques in Mathura which is a holy place of the Hindus and where they go for bathing. He appointed government officials in order to see that no Hindu could bathe in Mathra. No barber was permitted to shave the head of any Hindu with his razor. That is how he completely curtailed the public celebration of infidel customs…”
Thanesar (Haryana) “Sultan Sikandar was yet a young boy when he heard about a tank in Thanesar which the Hindus regarded as sacred and went for bathing in it. He asked the theologians about the prescription of the Shariah on this subject. They replied that it was permitted to demolish the ancient temples and idol-houses of the infidels, but it was not proper for him to stop them from going to an ancient tank. Hearing this reply, the prince drew out his sword and thought of beheading the theologian concerned, saying that he (the theologian) was siding with the infidels…
Sultan Ibrahim Lodi (CE 1517-1526)
Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh)
“…When the thought occurred to Sultan Ibrahim, he sent azam Humayun on this expedition… The Afghan army captured from the infidels the statue of a bull which was made of metals such as copper and brass, which was outside the gate of the fort and which the Hindus used to worship. They brought it to the Sultan. The Sultan was highly pleased and ordered that it should be taken to Delhi and placed outside the ‘Red Gate’ which was known as the Baghdad Gate in those days. The statue was so fixed in front of the ‘Red Gate’ till the time of the Mughal emperor, Akbar the Great, who ordered in AH 999 that it be melted down and used for making cannon as well as some other equipment, which are still there in the government armoury. The author of this history… has seen it in both shapes.”
Sultan Sulaiman Karrani of Bengal (CE 1563-1576)
Puri (Orissa) “
Sulaiman Karrani…made up his mind to demolish all the temples and idol-houses of the infidels. As the biggest temple of the Hindus was in Orissa and known as Jagannath, he decided to destroy it and set out in that direction with a well-equipped force. Reaching there, he demolished the idol-house and laid it waste. There was an idol in it known as that of Kishan… Sulaiman ordered that it be broken into pieces and thrown into the drain. In like manner, he took out seven hundred golden idols from idol-temples in the neighbouring areas… and broke them.…When the armies of Islam entered that city, the women of the Brahmans, dressed in costly robes, wearing necklaces, covering their heads with colourful scarves and beautifying themselves in every way, took shelter at the back of the temple of Jagannath. They were told again and again that a Muslim army that had entered the city would capture and take them away, and that those people would desecrate the temple after laying it waste. But the women did not believe it at all. They kept on saying. ‘How could it happen? How could the soldiers of the Muslim army cause any injury to the idols? When the army of Islam arrived near the temple, it made prisoners of those Hindu women. That is what surprised them most…
The History of the Afghans in India CE 1545-1631 by M.A. Rahim (Karachi, 1961) quotes Makhzan-i-Afghana while describing the exploits of Sulaiman Karrani’s general, Kalapahar, in CE 1568. It says: “Every Afghan, who took part in the campaign, obtained as booty one or two gold images. Kala Pahar destroyed the temple of Jagannath in Puri which contained 700 idols made of gold, the biggest of which weighed 30 mans.

(47) Mirat-i-Sikandari: The author, Sikandar bin Muhammad Manjhu bin Akbar, was in the employ of Aziz Koka, the Mughal governor of Gujarat, and fought against Sultan Muzaffar Shah III, the last independent sultan of Gujarat, who was dethroned in CE 1591. He finished his history in 1611 or 1613 relating the history of Gujarat from Muzaffar Shah I to Muzaffar Shah III.
Sultan Muzaffar Shah I of Gujarat (CE 1392-1410)
Somnath (Gujarat)
“On his return (from idar) the Khan made up his mind to destroy Somnat, that is, the temple of Patandev…In AH 799 (CE 1394-95) he invaded Jahdand (JunagaDh)which was in the Kindgdom of Rai Bhara and slaughtered the infidels there. From there he proceeded towards Somnat, and destroyed the famous temple. He embellished that city with the laws of Islam.”
Sultan Ahmad Shah I of Gujarat (CE 1411-1443)
Sidhpur (Gujarat)

“Thereafter in AH 823 (CE 1420-21) he proceeded to different parts of his Kingdom for establishing order and good government… He got temples demolished and palaces and mosques constructed in their stead…”
Sultan Mahmud BegDha of Gujarat (CE 1458-1511)
Dwarka (Gujarat)
“On 17 Zilhijja he started towards Jagat and reduced that place after marching continuously. The infidels of Jagat ran away to the island of Sankhu. The Sultan destroyed Jagat and got its palaces dismantled. He got the idols broken…”
Sankhodhar (Gujarat) “…When the Sultan saw that the infidels had gone to that island, he ordered boats from the ports and proceeded to the island with his well-armed soldiers… The infidels did not stint in fighting with swords and guns. In the end the army of Islam achieved victory. A majority of the infidels were slaughtered. The Musalmans started giving calls to prayers after mounting on top of the temples. They started destroying the temples and desecrating the idols. The Sultan offered namaz out of gratefulness of Allah… He got a Jami Masjid raised in that place…”
Sultan Muzaffar Shah II of Gujarat (CE 1511-1526)
Idar (Gujarat) “
…The Raja of idar ran away to the mountains and on the fourth day the Sultan started from Morasa and halted near idar. He ordered that the houses and temples of idar should be destroyed in such a way that no trace of them should remain.”
Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat (CE 1526-1537)
Vidisha (Madhya Pradesh)
“Afterwards he went towards Bhilsa which country had been conquered for Islam by Sultan Shamsud-din (Altamsh), King of Delhi. Since eighteen years the estate of Bhilsa had been subject to Silahdi, and the laws of Islam had been changed there for the customs of infidelity. When the Sultan reached the above place, he abrogated the ordinances of infidelity and introduced the laws of Islam, and slew the idolaters and threw down their temples…”[this is an indication that many time the Hindus recovered their territories once the Islamic looters passed on]

(46) Intikhab-i-Jahangir Shabi; The name of the author is not known but he was apparently a contemporary and a companion of Jahangir. The Tabqat-i-Shah-Jahani mentions a work written by Sheikh Abdul Wahab and named Akhlaq-i-Jahangiri. This work may be the same as the Intikhab. The Shykh died in 1622-23.
Nurud-Din Muhammad Jahangir Padshah Ghazi (CE 1605-1628)
Ahmadabad (Gujarat
) “One day at Ahmadabad it was reported that many of the infidel and superstitious sect of the Seoras (Jains) of Gujarat had made several very great and splendid temples, and having placed in them their false gods, had managed to secure a large degree of respect for themselves and that the women who went for worship in those temples were polluted by them and other people… The Emperor Jahangir ordered them banished from the country, and their temples to be, demolished. Their idol was thrown down on the uppermost step of the mosque, that it might be trodden upon by those who came to say their daily prayers there. By this order of the Emperor, the infidels were exceedingly disgraced, and Islam exalted”

(47) TazkiratuI-Muluk is a history of Bijapur written in CE 1608-09 by Rafiud-Din Ibrahim Shirazi, an Iranian adventurer and diplomat.
Sultan Ali I adilshah of Bijapur (CE 1557-1580)
Karnataka “
While campaigning in Karnataka following the fall of Vijayanagar Ali I’s armies destroyed two or three hundred Hindu temples, and the monarch himself was said to have smashed four or five thousand Hindu images…”

(48) Tarikh-i-Kashmir : The author, Haidar Malik Chadurah, was a Kashmiri nobleman in the service of Sultan Yusuf Shah (CE 1579-1586). He gives the history of Kashmir from the earliest times. The pre-Islamic period is based on Rajatarangini. It was begun in CE 1618 and finished sometime after 1620-21.
Sultan Sikandar Butshikan of Kashmir (CE 1389-1413)
Kashmir
“During the reign of Sultan Sikandar, Mir Sayyid Muhammad, son of Mir Sayyid Hamadani… came here, and removed the rust of ignorance and infidelity and the evils, by his preaching and guidance… He wrote an epistle for Sultan Sikandar on tasawwuf… Sultan Sikandar became his follower. He prohibited all types of frugal games. Nobody dared commit acts which were prohibited by the Shariat… The Sultan was constantly busy in annihilating the infidels and destroyed most of the temples…
Malik Musa of Kashmir was a powerful minister in the reign of Sultan Fath Shah (CE 1489-1516), but Tarikh-i-Kashmir presents him as the monarch. It says:
“Malik Musa ascended the throne in AH 907 (CE 1501). During his reign, he devoted himself to the obliteration of the infidels and busied himself with the spread of the religion of the prophet. He made desolate most of the temples where the infidels had practised idolatry. Wherever there was a temple, he destroyed it and built a mosque in its place… None of the Sultans of Kashmir after Sultan Sikandar… ever made such an effort for the spread of the Islamic faith as did Malik Musa Chadurah, and for this auspicious reason he received the title of the ‘Idol Breaker’.

(49) Mirat-i-Masudi is a biography of Sayyid Salar Masud Ghazi whose tomb at Bahraich (Uttar Pradesh) occupies the site of a Sun Temple. It was written by Sheikh Abdur-Rahman Chishti in the reign of Jahangir (1605-1628). He drew his main material from Tawarikh-i-Mahmudi by Mulla Muhammad Ghaznavi, a contemporary of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (CE 997-1030). Salar Masud, according to this account, was the son of Sitr Mualla’, a sister of Sultan Mahmud, married to his general, Salar Sahu. Salar Masud was born when the couple was staying in Ajmer. He is famous among the Muslims as Ghazi Miyan, Bala Miyan (revered boy) and Hathila Pir (the obstinate saint). There are many stories current regarding how he led or sent many expeditions against the Hindu Kafirs in all direction from his headquarters at Satrakh in the Barabanki District of Uttar Pradesh. He is supposed to have defeated many Rajas, plundered many towns, and destroyed many temples, particularly in Awadh. Many tombs all over Awadh and neighbouring areas are reputed to be the graves of his Ghazis (veterans) who became Shahids (martys) in a prolonged Jihad (holy war) directed by him. He was finally caught and killed near Bahraich by a league of Hindu Rajas.
Saiyyid Salar Masud Ghazi (CE 1013-1033)
Somnath (Gujarat)
“It happened that Mahmud had long been planning an expedition into Bhardana, and Gujarat, to destroy the idol temple of Somnat, a place of great sanctity to all Hindus. So as soon as he had returned to Ghazni from his Khurasan business, he issued a farman to the General of the army, ordering him to leave a confidential officer in charge of the fort of Kabuliz, and himself to join the court with his son Salar Masud…the Sultan shortly after reached Ghazni, and laid down the image of Somnat at the threshold of the Mosque of Ghazni, so that the Musulmans might tread upon the breast of the idol on their way to and from their devotions. As soon as the unbelievers heard of this, they sent an embassy to Khwaja Hasan Maimandi, stating that the idol was of stone and useless to the Musulmans, and offered to give twice its weight in gold as a ransom, if it might be returned to them. Khwaja Hasan Maimandi represented to the Sultan that the unbelievers had offered twice the weight of the idol in gold, and had agreed to be subject to him. He added, that the best policy would be to take the gold and restore the image, thereby attaching the people to his Government. The Sultan yielded to the advice of the Khwaja, and the unbelievers paid the gold into the treasury. One day, when the Sultan was seated on his throne, the ambassadors of the unbelievers came, and humbly petitioned thus: ‘Oh, Lord of the world! we have paid the gold to your Government in ransom, but have not yet received our purchase, the idol Somnat.’ The Sultan was wroth at their words, and, falling into reflection, broke up the assembly and retired, with his dear Salar Masud, into his private apartments. He then asked his opinion as to whether the image ought to be restored, or not? Salar Masud, who was perfect in goodness, said quickly, ‘In the day of the resurrection, when the Almighty shall call for azar, the idol-destroyer, and Mahmud, the idol-seller, Sire! what will you say?’ This speech deeply affected the Sultan, he was full of grief, and answered, ‘I have given my word; it will be a breach of promise.’ Salar Masud begged him to make over the idol to him, and tell the unbelievers to get it from him. The Sultan agreed; and Salar Masud took it to his house, and, breaking off its nose and ears, ground them to powder. When Khwaja Hasan introduced the unbelievers, and asked the Sultan to give orders to restore the image to them, his majesty replied that Salar Masud had carried it off to his house, and that he might send them to get it from him. Khwaja Hasan, bowing his head, repeated these words in Arabic, ‘No easy matter is it to recover anything which has fallen into the hands of a lion.’ He then told the unbelievers that the idol was with Salar Masud, and that they were at liberty to go and fetch it. So they went to Masud’s door and demanded their god. That prince commanded Malik Nekbakht to treat them courteously, and make them be seated; then to mix the dust of the nose and ears of the idol with sandal and the lime eaten with betel-nut, and present it to them. The unbelievers were delighted, and smeared themselves with sandal, and ate the betel-leaf. After a while they asked for the idol, when Salar Masud said he had given it to them. They inquired, with astonishment, what he meant by saying that they had received the idol? And Malik Nekbakht explained that it was mixed with the sandal and betel-lime. Some began to vomit, while others went weeping and lamenting to Khwaja Hasan Maimandi and told him what had occurred…Afterwards the image of Somnat was divided into four parts, as is described in the Tawarikh-i-Mahmudi. Mahmud’s first exploit is said to have been conquering the Hindu rebels, destroying the forts and the idol temples of the Rai Ajipal (Jaipal), and subduing the country of India. His second, the expedition into Harradawa and Guzerat, the carrying off the idol of Somnat, and dividing it into four pieces, one of which he is reported to have placed on the threshold of the Imperial Palace, while he sent two others to Mecca and Medina respectively. Both these exploits were performed at the suggestion, and by the advice, of the General and Salar Masud; but India was conquered by the efforts of Salar Masud alone, and the idol of Somnat was broken in pieces by his sold advice, as has been related. Salar Sahu was Sultan of the army and General of the forces in Iran.
Awadh (Uttar Pradesh) “…Masud hunted through the country around Bahraich, and whenever he passed by the idol temple of Suraj-kund, he was wont to say that he wanted that piece of ground for a dwelling-place. This Suraj-kund was a sacred shrine of all the unbelievers of India. They had carved an image of the sun in stone on the banks of the tank there. This image they called Balarukh, and through its fame Bahraich had attained its flourishing condition. When there was an eclipse of the sun, the unbelievers would come from east and west to worship it, and every Sunday the heathen of Bahraich and its environs, male and female, used to assemble in thousands to rub their heads under that stone, and do it reverence as an object of peculiar sanctity. Masud was distressed at this idolatry, and often said that, with God’s will and assistance, he would destroy that mine of unbelief, and set up a chamber for the worship of the Nourisher of the Universe in its place, rooting out unbelief from those parts…Meanwhile, the Rai Sahar Deo and Har Deo, with several other chiefs, who had kept their troops in reserve, seeing that the army of Islam was reduced to nothing, unitedly attacked the body-guard of the Prince. The few forces that remained to that loved one of the Lord of the Universe were ranged round him in the garden. The unbelievers, surrounding them in dense numbers, showered arrows upon them. It was then, on Sunday, the 14th of the month Rajab, in the aforesaid year 424 (14th June, 1033) as the time of evening prayer came on, that a chance arrow pierced the main artery in the arm of the Prince of the Faithful”[Here obviously the Islamic tactics have been used back upon them – deception, ambush with reserve]

(50) Badshah-Nama: The author, Abdul Hamid Lahori, was commissioned by Shah Jahan himself to compile this history which is a voluminous work covering the first twenty years of Shah Jahan’s reign. Lahori died in 1654.
Nurud-Din Muhammad Jahangir Padshah Ghazi (CE 1605-1628)
“Perhaps these instances [Mewar, Kangra, and Ajmer] made a contemporary poet of his court sing his praises as the great Muslim emperor who converted temples into mosques.”
Shihabud-Din Muhammad Shah Jahan Padshah Ghazi (CE 1628-1658)
Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh)
“It had been brought to the notice of His Majesty that during the late reign many idol temples had been begun, but remained unfinished at Benares, the great stronghold of infidelity. The infidels were now desirous of completing them. His Majesty, the defender of the faith, gave orders that at Benares, and throughout all his dominions in every place, all temples that had been begun should be cast down. It was now reported from the province of Allahabad that seventy-six temples had been destroyed in the district of Benares.[This is the same Shah Jahan who is to be representd in the Thaparite text books as only a doting father, loving husband, and grief stricken Taj-Mahal builder]
Orchha (Madhya Pradesh) “At the Bundela capital the Islam-cherishing Emperor demolished the lofty and massive temple of Bir Singh Dev near his palace, and erected a mosque on its site.”
Kashmir “Some temples in Kashmir were also sacrificed to the religious fury of the emperor. The Hindu temple at Ichchhabal was destroyed and converted into a mosque.”

(51) Shahjahan-Nama was written by Inayat Khan also known as Muhammad Tahir ashna. It comes down to AH 1068 (CE 1657-58), the year when Aurangzeb seized power and imprisoned Shah Jahan in the fort of Agra.
Shihabud-Din Muhammad Shah Jahan Padshah Ghazi (CE 1628-1658)
Orchha (Madhya Pradesh)
“When the environs of Orchha became the site of the royal standards, an ordinance was issued authorising the demolition of the idol temple, which Bir Singh Deo had erected at a great expense by the side of his private palace, and also the idols contained in it…”

(52) Mirat-i-alam: The author, Bakhtawar Khan, was an aristocrat of Aurangzeb’s court. He died in CE 1684. The history ascribed to him was really compiled by Muhammad Baqa of Saharanpur who gave the name of his friend as its author. Baqa was a prolific writer who was invited by Bakhtawar Khan to Aurangzeb’s court and given a respectable rank. He died in CE 1683.

Muhiyud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb alamgir Padshah Ghazi (CE 1658-1707)
“Hindu writers have been entirely excluded from holding public offices, and all the worshipping places of the infidels and great temples of these infamous people have been thrown down and destroyed in a manner which excites astonishment at the successful completion of so difficult a task. His Majesty personally teaches the sacred kalima to many infidels with success… All the mosques in the empire are repaired at public expense. Imama, criers to the daily prayers, and readers of the khutba, have been appointed to each of them, so that a large sum of money has been and is still laid out in these disbursements…”[Thus public taxation from the Hindu majority also went towards the upkeep of Islamic shrines and maintenance of its theorlogians]

(53) Alamgir-Nama was written in CE 1688 by Mirza Muhammad Kazim, and contains a history of the first ten years of Aurangzeb’s reign.
Muhiyud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb alamgir Padshah Ghazi (CE 1658-1707)
Palamau (Bihar)
“In 1661 Aurangzeb in his zeal to uphold the law of Islam sent orders to his Viceroy of Bihar, Daud Khan, to conquer Palamau. In the military operations that followed many temples were destroyed…”
Koch Bihar (Bengal) “Towards the end of the same year when Mir Jumla made a war on the Raja of Kuch Bihar, the Mughals destroyed many temples during the course of, their operations. Idols were broken and some temples were converted into mosques.”

(54) Masir-i-alamgiri: The author, Saqa Mustad Khan, completed this history in CE 1710 at the behest of Inayatullah Khan Kashmiri, Aurangzeb’s last secretary and favourite disciple in state policy and religion. The material used in this history of Aurangzeb’s reign came mostly from the State archives which were thrown open to him.
Muhiyud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb alamgir Padshah Ghazi (CE 1658-1707)
“The Lord Cherisher of the Faith learnt that in the provinces of Tatta, Multan, and especially at Benares, the Brahman misbelievers used to teach their false books in their established schools, and that admirers and students both Hindu and Muslim, used to come from great distances to these misguided men in order to acquire this vile learning. His Majesty, eager to establish Islam, issued orders to the governors of all the provinces to demolish the schools and temples of the infidels and with the utmost urgency put down the teaching and the public practice of the religion of these misbelievers.
Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh) “It was reported that, according to the Emperor’s command, his officers had demolished the temple of Viswanath at Kashi.”
Mathura (Uttar Pradesh) “…During this month of Ramzan…the Emperor as the promoter of justice and overthrower of mischief, as a knower of truth and destroyer of oppression, as the zephyr of the garden of victory and the reviver of the faith of the Prophet, issued orders for the demolition of the temple situated in Mathura, famous as the Dehra of Kesho Rai. In a short time by the great exertions of his officers the destruction of this strong foundation of infidelity was accomplished, and on its site a lofty mosque was built at the expenditure of a large sum…On seeing this instance of the strength of the Emperor’s faith and the grandeur of his devotion to God, the proud Rajas were stifled and in amazement they stood like images facing the wall. The idols, large and small, set with costly jewels which had been set up in the temple were brought to Agra, and buried under the steps of the mosque of the Begam Sahib, in order to be continually trodden upon. The name of Mathura was changed to Islamabad.”
Khandela (Rajasthan) “…Darab Khan who had been sent with a strong force to punish the Rajputs of Khandela and to demolish the great temple of the place, attacked the place on the 8th March/5th Safar, and slew the three hundred and odd men who made a bold defence, not one of them escaping alive. The temples of Khandela and Sanula and all other temples in the neighbourhood were demolished…”
Jodhpur (Rajasthan) “On Sunday, the 25th May/24th Rabi. S., Khan Jahan Bahadur came from Jodhpur, after demolishing the temples and bringing with himself some cart-loads of idols, and had audience of the Emperor, who highly praised him and ordered that the idols, which were mostly jewelled, golden, silvery, bronze, copper or stone, should be cast in the yard (jilaukhanah) of the Court and under the steps of the Jama mosque, to be trodden on. They remained so for some time and at last their very names were lost”
Udaipur (Rajasthan) “…Ruhullah Khan and Ekkataz Khan went to demolish the great temple in front of the Rana’s palace, which was one of the rarest buildings of the age and the chief cause of the destruction of life and property of the despised worshippers twenty machator Rajputs who were sitting in the temple vowed to give up their lives; first one of them came out to fight, killed some and was then himself slain, then came out another and so on, until every one of the twenty perished, after killing a large number of the imperialists including the trusted slave, Ikhlas. The temple was found empty. The hewers broke the images.On Saturday, the 24th January, 1680/2nd Muharram, the Emperor went to view lake Udaisagar, constructed by the Rana, and ordered all the three temples on its banks to be demolished…On the 29th January/7th Muharram, Hasan Ali Khan brought to the Emperor twenty camel-loads of tents and other things captured from the Rana’s palace and reported that one hundred and seventy-two other temples in the environs of Udaipur had been destroyed. The Khan received the title of Bahadur Alamgirshahi”
Amber (Rajasthan) “Abu Turab, who had been sent to demolish the temples of Amber, returned to Court on Tuesday, the 10th August/24th Rajab, and reported that he had pulled down sixty-six temples…”
Bijapur (Karnataka) “…Hamiduddin Khan Bahadur who had gone to demolish a temple and build a mosque (in its place) in Bijapur, having excellently carried out his orders, came to Court and gained praise and the post of darogha of gusalkhanah, which brought him near the Emperor’s person…”
“…Through the auspices of his hearty endeavour, the Hanafi creed (an Orthodox Sunni branch) has gained such strength and currency in the great country of Hindustan as was never seen in the times of any of the preceding sovereigns. By one stroke of the pen, the Hindu clerks (writers) were dismissed from the public employment. Large numbers of the places of worship of the infidels and great temples of these wicked people have been thrown down and desolated…Arid on the sites of the temples lofty mosques have been built…”

(55) Akhbarat : reports from different provinces compiled in the reign of Aurangzeb.
Muhiyud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb alamgir Padshah Ghazi (CE 1658-1707)
Mathura (Uttar Pradesh)
“The Emperor learning that in the temple of Keshav Rai at Mathura there was a stone railing presented by Dara Shukoh, remarked, ‘In the Muslim faith it is a sin even to look at a temple, and this Dara had restored a railing in a temple. This fact is not creditable to the Muhammadans. Remove the railing. By his order Abdun Nabi Khan (the faujdar of Mathura) removed it.”
Ujjain (Madhya Pradesh) “News came from Malwa that Wazir Khan had sent Gada Beg, a slave, with 400 troopers, to destroy all temples around Ujjain… A Rawat of the place resisted and slew Gada Beg with 121 of his men.”
Aurangabad (Maharashtra) “The Emperor learnt from a secret news writer of Delhi that in Jaisinghpura Bairagis used to worship idols, and that the Censor on hearing of it had gone there, arrested Sri Krishna Bairagi and taken him with 15 idols away to his house; then the Rajputs had assembled flocked to the Censor’s house, wounded three footmen of the Censor and tried to seize the Censor himself; so that the latter set the Bairagi free and sent the copper idols to the local subahdar.”
Pandharpur (Maharashatra) The Emperor, summoning Muhammad Khalil and Khidmat Rai, the darogha of hatchet-men… ordered them to demolish the temple of Pandharpur, and to take the butchers of the camp there and slaughter cows in the temple… It was done.”
enroute Deccan “When the war with the Rajputs was over, Aurangzeb decided to leave for the Deccan. His march seems to have been marked with the destruction to many temples on the way. On 21 May, 1681, the superintendent of the labourers was ordered to destroy all the temples on the route.”
Lakheri “On 27 September, 1681, the emperor issued orders for the destruction of the temples at Lakheri.”
Rasulpur “About this time, on 14 April, 1692, orders were issued to the provincial governor and the district fojdar to demolish the temples at Rasulpur.”
Sheogaon “Sankar, a messenger, was sent to demolish a temple near Sheogaon. He came back after pulling it down on 20 November, 1693.”[Shankar sounds a Hindu name,a s Muslims are known to meticulously avoid Sanskrot words and names of Hindu gods – one of the continuing small class of Hindu collaborators perhaps]
Ajmer (Rajasthan) “Bijai Singh and several other Hindus were reported to be carrying on public worship of idols in a temple in the neighbourhood of Ajmer. On 23 June, 1694, the governor of Ajmer was ordered to destroy the temple and stop the public adoration of idol worship there.”
Wakenkhera “The temple of Wakenkhera in the fort was demolished on 2 March, 1705.”
Bhagwant Garh (Rajasthan) “The newswriter of Ranthambore reported the destruction of a temple in Parganah Bhagwant Garh. Gaj Singh Gor had repaired the temple and made some additions thereto.”
Malpura (Rajasthan) “Royal orders for the destruction of temples in Malpura Toda were received and the officers were assigned for this work.”

(56) Fathiyya-i-Ibriyya is a diary of Mir Jumla’s campaigns in Kuch Bihar and Assam. “By looting,” writes Jadunath Sarkar, “the temples of the South and hunting out buried treasures, Mir Jumla amassed a vast fortune. The huge Hindu idols of copper were brought away in large numbers to be melted and cast into cannon.”
Muhiyud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb alamgir Padshah Ghazi (CE 1658-1707)
Koch Bihar (Bengal)
“Mir Jumla made his way into Kuch Bihar by an obscure and neglected highway… In six days the Mughal army reached the capital (19th December) which had been deserted by the Rajah and his people in terror. The name of the town was changed to Alamgirnagar; the Muslim call to prayer, so long forbidden in the city, was chanted from the lofty roof of the palace, and a mosque was built by demolishing the principal temple…”

(57) Kalimat-i-Tayyibat is a collection of letters and orders of Aurangzeb compiled by Inayatullah in CE 1719 and covers the years 1699-1704 of Aurangzeb’s reign.
Muhiyud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb alamgir Padshah Ghazi (CE 1658-1707)
Somnath (Gujarat)
“The temple of Somnath was demolished early in my reign and idol worship (there) put down. It is not known what the state of things there is at present. If the idolaters have again taken to the worship of images at the place, then destroy the temple in such a way that no trace of the building may be left, and also expel them (the worshippers) from the place.”
Satara (Maharashtra) “The village of Sattara near Aurangabad was my hunting ground. Here on the top of a hill, stood a temple with an image of Khande Rai. By God’s grace I demolished it, and forbade the temple dancers (muralis) to ply their shameful profession…”
“The demolition of a temple is possible at any time, as it cannot walk away from its place.”[an observation that the Emperor missed was that long after he was gone similar logic could be applied to the mosques he had built on destroyed Hindu temples]
Sirhind (Punjab) “In a small village in the sarkar of Sirhind, a Sikh temple was demolished and converted into a mosque. An imam was appointed who was subsequently killed.”[apparently Sikhs began to give back to Islam in measure equal to that they received]

(58) Ganj-i-Arshadi is a contemporary account of the destruction of Hindu temples at Varanasi in the reign of Aurangzeb:
Mubiyud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb alamgir Padshah Ghazi (CE 1658-1707)
Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh)
“The infidels demolished a mosque that was under construction and wounded the artisans. When the news reached Shah Yasin, he came to Banaras from Mandyawa and collecting the Muslim weavers, demolished the big temple. A Sayyid who was an artisan by profession agreed with one Abdul Rasul to build a mosque at Banaras and accordingly the foundation was laid. Near the place there was a temple and many houses belonging to it were in the occupation of the Rajputs. The infidels decided that the construction of a mosque in the locality was not proper and that it should be razed to the ground. At night the walls of the mosque were found demolished. Next day the wall was rebuilt but it was again destroyed. This happened three or four times. At last the Sayyid hid himself in a corner. With the advent of night the infidels came to achieve their nefarious purpose. When Abdul Rasul gave the alarm, the infidels began to fight and the Sayyid was wounded by Rajputs. In the meantime, the Musalman resident of the neighbourhood arrived at the spot and the infidels took to their heels. The wounded Muslims were taken to Shah Yasin who determined to vindicate the cause of Islam. When he came to the mosque, people collected from the neighbourhood. The civil officers were outwardly inclined to side with the saint, but in reality they were afraid of the royal displeasure on account of the Raja, who was a courtier of the Emperor and had built the temple (near which the mosque was under construction). Shah Yasin, however, took up the sword and started for Jihad. The civil officers sent him a message that such a grave step should not be taken without the Emperor’s permission. Shah Yasin, paying no heed, sallied forth till he reached Bazar Chau Khamba through a fusillade of stones… The, doors (of temples) were forced open and the idols thrown down. The weavers and other Musalmans demolished about 500 temples. They desired to destroy the temple of Beni Madho, but as lanes were barricaded, they desisted from going further.”

(59) Kalimat-i-Aurangzeb is another compilation of letters and orders by Inayatullah covering the years 1703-06 of Aurangzeb’s reign.
Muhiyud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb alamgir Padshah Ghazi (CE 1658-1707)
Maharashtra
“The houses of this country (Maharashtra) are exceedingly strong and built solely of stone and iron. The hatchet-men of the Government in the course of my marching do not get sufficient strength and power (i.e., time) to destroy and raze the temples of the infidels that meet the eye on the way. You should appoint an orthodox inspector (darogha) who may afterwards destroy them at leisure and dig up their foundations.”

(60) Muraqat-i-AbuI Hasan is a collection of records and documents compiled by Maulana Abul Hasan, one of Aurangzeb’s officers in Bengal and Orissa during CE 1655-67.
Muhiyud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb alamgir Padshah Ghazi (CE 1658-1707)
Bengal and Orissa
“Order issued on all faujdars of thanas, civil officers (mutasaddis), agents of jagirdars, kroris, and amlas from Katak to Medinipur on the frontier of Orissa:- The imperial paymaster Asad Khan has sent a letter written by order of the Emperor, to say, that the Emperor learning from the newsletters of the province of Orissa that at the village of Tilkuti in Medinipur a temple has been (newly) built, has issued his august mandate for its destruction, and the destruction of all temples built anywhere in this province by the worthless infidels. Therefore, you are commanded with extreme urgency that immediately on the receipt of this letter you should destroy the above-mentioned temples. Every idol-house built during the last 10 or 12 years, whether with brick or clay, should be demolished without delay. Also, do not allow the crushed Hindus and despicable infidels to repair their old temples. Reports of the destruction of temples should be sent to the Court under the seal of the qazis and attested by pious Shaikhs.”[Aurangzeb is supposed to be a strict Muslim, and not even in the favourite Mughal habit of taking opium. Also the letter is bing sent to an officer, and not meant for private fantasy. The Thaparite school would have a very hard time to suppress or discredit this important clue as to how ancient Hindu temples were “naturally” ruined]

(61) Futuhat-i-alamgiri : The author, Ishwardas Nagar, was a Brahman from Gujarat, born around CE 1654. Till the age of thirty he is in the service of the Chief Qazi of the empire under Aurangzeb. Later on, he took up a post under Shujat Khan, the governor of Gujarat, who appointed him amin in the pargana of Jodhpur. His history covers almost half a century of Aurangzeb’s reign, from 1657 to 1700.
Muhiyud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb alamgir Padshah Ghazi (CE 16M-1707)
Mathura (Uttar Pradesh) “
When the imperial army was encamping at Mathura, a holy city of the Hindus, the state of affairs with regard to temples of Mathura was brought to the notice of His Majesty. Thus, he ordered the faujdar of the city, Abdul Nabi Khan, to raze to the ground every temple and to construct big mosques (over their demolished sites).”
Udaipur (Rajasthan) “The Emperor, within a short time, reached Udaipur and destroyed the gate of Dehbari, the palaces of Rana and the temples of Udaipur. Apart from it, the trees of his gardens were also destroyed.”[Brahmins in the employ of Muslims usually do not speak of Islamic violence on Hindus – and this is the sole reason given to justify the Thaparite claim that there was no trauma on the Hindu side. What should we do with this Brahmin?]

(62) Nau-Bahar-i-Murshid Quli-Khani: The author, azad al-Husaini, was a poor but learned immigrant from Persia, who presented this work in CE 1729 to Mirza Lutfullah surnamed Murshid Quli II who had arrived in Dhaka in 1728 as the Deputy Governor of Shujaud-Din, the Mughal Governor of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa from 1727 to 1739.
Nasirud-Din Muhammad Shah Bahadur Padshah Ghazi (CE 1719-1748)
Udaipur (Tripura)
“Tipara is a country extremely strong… The Raja is proud of his strength and the practice of conch-blowing and idol-worship prevailed there…Murshid Quli II decided to conquer Tipara and put down idolatry there. He wrote to Sayyid Habibullah (the Commander-in-Chief), Md. Sadiq, Mir Hashim, Shaikh Sirajuddin Md., and Mahdi Beg who were then engaged in the Chittogong expedition, that… they should set out with their forces, observing every precaution, arrive close to the Kingdom of Tipara, and try to conquer it…The Tipara soldiers did not fail to fight regardless of death. The Muslim troops invested the fort from four sides. A severe battle was fought. The zamindar’s men lay dead in heaps. The victors entered the fort… The flag of Murshid Quli Khan was unfurled on the top of fort Udaipur. The Muslims raised the cry of Allahu-akbar and the Muslim credo and demolished the temple of the zamindar which had long been the seat of idol-worship. Making a level courtyard on the side of the temple, they read the Khutba in the Emperor’s name… The world-illuminating sun of the faith of Muhammad swept away the dark night of infidelity, and the bright day of Islam dawned.”

(63) Kanzul-Mahfuz : The name and position of the author is not known. It deals with the history of the Ummayids, the Ghaznivids and the Muslim dynasties of India.
Muhiyud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb alamgir Padshah Ghazi (CE 1658-1707)
Agra (Uttar Pradesh)
“In the city of Agra there was a large temple, in which there were numerous idols, adorned and embellished with precious jewels and valuable pearls. It was the custom of the infidels to resort to this temple from far and near several times in each year to worship the idols, and a certain fee to the Government was fixed upon each man, for which he obtained admittance. As there was a large congress of pilgrims, a very considerable amount was realized from them, and paid into the royal treasury. This practice had been observed to the end of the reign of the Emperor Shah Jahan, and in the commencement of Aurangzeb’s government; but when the latter was informed of it, he was exceedingly angry and abolished the custom. The greatest nobles of his court represented to him that a large sum was realized and paid into the public treasury, and that if it was abolished, a great reduction in the income of the state would take place. The Emperor observed, ‘What you say is right, but I have considered well on the subject, and have reflected on it deeply; but if you wish to augment the revenue, there is a better plan for attaining the object by exacting the jizya. By this means idolatry will be suppressed, the Muhammadan religion and the true faith will be honoured, our proper duty will be performed, the finances of the state will be increased, and the infidels will be disgraced.’ …This was highly approved by all the nobles; and the Emperor ordered all the golden and silver idols to be broken, and the temple destroyed…”

(64) Muntikhabul-Lubab: The author, Hashim Ali Khan, is better known by his designation of Khafi Khan and was the son of a historian in the employ of Aurangzeb. He was brought up in the court of Aurangzeb, made a diwan, but was ordered to stop writing history. He, however, continued writing in secret. Muhammad Shah was pleased when he saw what had been written and named him Khafi Khan. The work is also known as Tarikh-i-Khafi Khan. It starts with the invasion of Babur in CE 1519 and comes upto the fourteenth year of Bahadur Shah (CE 1719-1748). He refers to the Hindus as evil dogs, accursed wretches, etc.
Shihabud-Din Muhammad Shah Jahan Padshah Ghazi (1628-1658) After the destruction of temples in Benares and Gujarat, “materials of some of the Hindu temples were used for building mosques.”
Hargaon (Uttar Pradesh) “In CE 1630-31 (AH 1040) when Abdal, the Hindu chief of Hargaon in the province of Allahabad, rebelled, most of the temples in the state were either demolished or converted into mosques. Idols were burnt.”
Muhiyud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb alamgir Padshah Ghazi (1658-1707)
Golkonda (Andhra Pradesh)
“On the capture of Golkonda, the Emperor appointed Abdur Rahim Khan as Censor of the city of Haiderabad with orders to put down infidel practices and (heretical) innovations and destroy the temples and build mosques on their sites.”
Bijapur (Karnataka) “The fall and capture of Bijapur was similarly solemnized though here the destruction of temples was delayed for several years, probably till 1698.”
Sikh Temples (Punjab) “Aurangzeb ordered the temples of the Sikhs to be destroyed and the guru’s agents (masands) for collecting the tithes and presents of the faithful to be expelled from the cities.”
Shah alam Bahadur Shah Padshah Ghazi (CE 1707-1712)
Jodhpur (Rajasthan)
“Ajit Singh… sent a message humbly asking that Khan Zaman and the KaziuI-Kuzat might come into Jodhpur, to rebuild the mosques, destroy idol-temples, enforce the provisions of the law about the summons to prayer and the killing of cows, to appoint magistrates and to commission officers to collect the jizya. His submission was graciously accepted, and his requests granted…”

(65) Mirat-i-Ahmadi is the most important Persian history of Gujarat. It starts with the Hindu Rajas of Anhilwada Patan and ends with the establishment of Maratha rule in the eighteenth century. It was written after the Third Battle of Panipat in CE 1761. The author, Ali Muhammad Khan, came to Gujarat from Burhanpur in 1708-09 and, when grown up, had access to official records.
Sultan A1aud-Din Khalji (CE 1296-1316)
Sidhpur (Gujarat)
“…When Raja Sidhraj Jaisingh Solanki became the king, he extended his conquest as far as Malwa and Burhanpur etc. and laid foundation of lofty forts such as the forts of Broach and Dabhoi etc. He dug the tank of Sahastraling in Pattan, many others in Biramgam and at most places in Sorath. His reign is known as ‘Sang Bast’, the Age of Stone Buildings. He founded the city of Sidhpur and built the famous Rudramal Temple. It is related that when he intended to build Rudramal, he summoned astrologers to elect an auspicious hour for it. The astrologers said to him that some harm through heavenly revolution is presaged from Alauddin when his turn comes to the Saltanat of Dihli. The Raja relied on the statement of astrologers and entered into a pledge and pact with the said Sultan. The Sultan had said. ‘If I do not destroy it under terms of the pact, yet I will leave some religious vestiges.’ When, after some time, the turn of the Sultan came to the Saltanat of Delhi, he marched with his army to that side and left religious marks by constructing a masjid and a minar…”
Somnath (Gujarat) “In the year 696, six hundred and ninety-six, he sent an army for the conquest of Gujarat under the command of Ulugh Khan who became famous among the Gujaratis as Alp Khan and Nusrat Khan Jalesri. These Khans subjected Naharwala that is, Pattan and the whole of that dominion to plunder and pillage… They broke the idol of Somnat which was installed again after Sultan Mahmud Ghaznawi and sent riches, treasure, elephants, women and daughters of Raja Karan to the Sultan at Delhi…”
Patan (Gujarat) “After conquest of Naharwala and expulsion of Raja Karan, Ulugh Khan occupied himself with the government. From that day, governors were appointed on this side on behalf of the Sultans of Dilhi. It is said that a lofty masjid called Masjid-i-Adinah (Friday Masjid) of marble stone which exists even today is built by him. It is popular among common folk that error is mostly committed in counting its many pillars. They relate that it was a temple which was converted into a masjid… Most of the relics and vestiges of magnificence and extension of the ancient prosperity of Pattan city are found in the shape of bricks and dried clay, which inform us about the truth of this statement, scattered nearly to a distance of three kurohs from the present place of habitation. Remnants of towers of the ancient fortifications seen at some places are a proof of repeated changes and vicissitudes in population due to passage of times. Most of the ancient relics gradually became extinct. Marble stones, at the end of the rule of rajas, were brought from Ajmer for building temples in such a quantity that more than which is dug out from the earth even now. All the marble stones utilized in the city of Ahmedabad were (brought) from that place…”
Sultan Muzaffar Shah I of Gujarat (CE 1392-1410)
Somnath (Gujarat)
“He made efforts at the proclamation of the word of God (confession of the Muslim faith). He led an army for plundering the temple of Somnat, that is, Pattan Dev. He spread Islam at most of the places…”
Sultan Ahmad Shah I of Gujarat (CE 1411-1443)
Sidhpur (Gujarat)
“In the year 817, eight hundred and seventeen Hijri, he resolved to march with intent of jihad against the unbelievers of Girnar, a famous fort in Sorath. Raja Mandalik fought with him but was defeated and took refuge in the fort. It is narrated that even though that land (region) this time did not get complete brightness form the lamp of Islam, yet the Sultan subdued the fort of Junagadh situated near the foot of Girnar mountain. Most of the Zamindars of Sorath became submissive and obedient to him and agreed to pay tribute. After that, he demolished the temple of Sayyedpur in the month of Jamadi I of the year 818, eight hundred and eighteen Hijri… In the year 823, he attended to the establishment of administrative control over his dominion. He suppressed refractoriness wherever it was found. He demolished temples and constructed masjids in their places…”
Sultan Mahmud Begah of Gujarat (CE 1458-1511)
Junagadh (Gujarat)
“Rao Mandalik saw that his fate was sealed. He fled at night to the fort and gave him a battle. When the warfare continued for some time provisions in the fort became scarce. He requested the Sultan in all humility to save his life. The Sultan agreed on condition of his accepting Islam. Rao Mandalik came down from the fort, surrendered the fort’s keys to the Sultan. The Sultan offered recitation of the word of Unity to him to repeat. He instantly recited it. The fort was conquered in the year 877… In a few days, he populated a city which can be called Ahmedabad and named it Mustafabad. Rao Mandalik was given the title of Khan Jahan with a grant of jagir. He gave away as presents the gold idols brought from the temple of Rao Mandalik to all soldiers…”
Sankhodhar (Gujarat) “This victory took place in the year 878, the island of Sankhodar was never conquered in any age by any king of the past. It is related that the Sultan performed two genuflexions of namaz out of thanksgiving at the time of demolishing the temple and breaking the idols of Jagat. He grew eloquent in recitation of praise out of gratitude to God. The Muslims raised calls to namaz (azan) by loud voice from top of temples… He built a masjid there.”
Idar (Gujarat) “He marched towards Malwa, in the same month, from Muhammedabad for repulsion of unbelievers and defence of religious-minded Muslims. He halted at the town of Godhra for reinforcement of powerful forces when he received a report about insolence of the Raja of Idar. He, therefore, marched thither and ordered to demolish houses and temples of Idar. This event took place in the year 919…”
Muhiyud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb alamgir Padshah Ghazi (CE 1658-1707)
Ahmadabad (Gujarat)
“During the Subedari of religious-minded, noble prince, vestiges of the Temple of Chintaman situated on the side of Saraspur built by Satidas jeweller, were removed under the Prince’s order and a masjid was erected on its remains. It was named ‘Quwwat-ul-Islam’…”

Gujarat “As it has come to His Majesty’s knowledge that some inhabitants of the mahals appertaining to the province of Gujarat have (again) built the temples which had been demolished by imperial order before his accession… therefore His Majesty orders that… the formerly demolished and recently restored temples should be pulled down.”
Vadnagar (Gujarat) “The Emperor ordered the destruction of the Hateshwar temple at Vadnagar, the special guardian of the Nagar Brahmans.”
Malarina (Rajasthan) “Salih Bahadur was sent to pull down the temple of Malarna.”
Sorath (Gujarat) “In CE 1696-97 (AH 1108) orders were issued for the destruction of the major temples at Sorath in Gujarat.”
Dwarka (Gujarat) “He stopped public worship at the Hindu temple of Dwarka.”

(66) Tarikh-i-Ibrahim Khan was composed by Nawab Ibrahim Khan and written down by Mulla Baksh in the town of Benares. It was finished in the year CE 1786. It is mainly a history of the Marathas.
Ahmad Shah Abdali (CE 1747-1773)
Mathura (Uttar Pradesh)
“Ahmad Shah Abdali in the year AH 1171 (CE 1757-58), came from the country of Kandahar to Hindastan, and on the 7th of Jumadal awwal of that year, had an interview with the Emperor Alamgir II, at the palace of Shah-Jahanabad… After an interval of a month, he set out to coerce Raja Suraj Mal Jat, who from a distant period, had extended his sway over the province of agra, as far as the environs of the city of Delhi. In three days he captured Balamgarh, situated at a distance of fifteen kos from Delhi… After causing a general massacre of the garrison he hastened towards Mathura, and having razed that ancient sanctuary of the Hindus to the ground, made all the idolaters fall a prey to his relentless sword…”

(67) Tarikh-i-Husain Shahi was written in CE 1797-98 by Sayyid Imamud-Din al-Husain.
Ahmad Shah Abdali (CE 1747-1773)
Mathura (Uttar Pradesh) “Idols were broken and kicked about like polo-balls by the Islamic heroes.”

(68) Riyazus-Salatin is a history of Bengal from the invasion of Bakhtiyar Khalji to CE 1788. The author, Ghulam Hussain Salim of Zaidpur in Awadh, had migrated to Bengal and become a Postmaster in Malda. He died in CE 1817.
Ikhtiyarud-Din Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khalji (CE 1202-1206)
Lakhnauti (Bengal)
“Muhammad Bakhtiyar sweeping the town with the broom of devastation, completely demolished it, and making anew the city of Lakhnauti… his metropolis, ruled over Bengal… and strove to put in practice the ordinances of the Muhammadan religion… and for a period ruling over Bengal he engaged in demolishing the temples and building mosques.”
Sulaiman Karrani of Bengal (CE 1563-1576)
Orissa
Kalapahar, by successive and numerous fightings, vanquished the Rajahs forces, and brought to his subjection the entire dominion of Odisah (Orissa), so much so that he carried off the Rani together with all household goods and chattels.[Kalapahar was Brahmin Hindu convert and here guves an important clue as to why Brahmins collaborated with Muslims if they did-loot and women] Notwithstanding all this, from fear of being killed, no one was bold to wake up this drunkard of the sleep of negligence, so that Kalapahar had his hands free. After completing the subjugation of the entire country, and investing the Fort of Barahbati, which was his (the Rajah’s) place of sleep, Kalapahar engaged in fighting… The firm Muhammadan religion and the enlightened laws of Islam were introduced into that country. Before this, the Musalman Sovereigns exercised no authority over this country. Of the miracles of Kalapahar, one was this, that wherever in that country, the sound of his drum reached, the hands and the feet, the ears and the noses of the idols, worshipped by the Hindus, fell off their stone-figures, so that even now stone-idols, with hands and feet broken, and noses and ears cut off, are lying at several places in that country. And the Hindus pursuing the false, from blindness of their hearts, with full sense and knowledge, devote themselves to their worship! “It is said at the time of return, Kalapahar left a drum in the jungle of Kaonjhar, which is lying in an upset state. No one there from fear of life dares to set it up; so it is related.”

(69) Asarus-Sanadid is a book on the antiquities of Delhi written by Sayyid Ahmad Khan, the famous founder of the Aligarh Muslim University. Its first edition was published in 1847,
Qutbud-Din Aibak (CE 1192-1210)
Iron Pillar: “…In our opinion this pillar was made in the ninth century before (the birth of) Lord Jesus… When Rai Pithora built a fort and an idol-house near this pillar, it stood in the courtyard of the idol-house. And when Qutbud-Din Aibak constructed a mosque after demolishing the idol-house, this pillar stood in the courtyard of the mosque…”[Even now any visitor not already steeped in Thaparism, can see the how the Hindu shrines and constructions have been turned over into the Islamic site – with signs of much more ancient constructions extending well into the National Park now surrounding the Meherauli site]
Idol-house of Rai Pithora: “There was an idol-house near the fort of Rai Pithora. It was very famous… It was built along with the fort in 1200 Bikarmi [Vikrama SaMvat] corresponding to CE 1143 and AH 538. The building of this temple was very unusual, and the work done on it by stone-cutters is such that nothing better can be conceived. The beautiful carvings on every stone in it defy description… The eastern and northern portions of this idol-house have survived intact. The fact that the Iron Pillar, which belongs to the Vaishnava faith, was kept inside it, as also the fact that sculptures of Kirshan avatar and Mahadev and Ganesh and Hanuman were carved on its walls, leads us to believe that this temple belonged to the Vaishnava faith. Although all sculptures were mutilated in the times of Muslims, even so a close scrutiny can identify as to which sculpture was what. In our opinion there was a red-stone building in this idol-house, and it was demolished. For, this sort of old stones with sculptures carved on them are still found.”
Quwwat al-Islam Masjid: “When Qutbud-Din, the commander-in-chief of Muizzud-Din Sam alias Shihabud-Din Ghuri, conquered Delhi in AH 587 corresponding to CE 1191 corresponding to 1248 Bikarmi, this idol-house (of Rai Pithora) was converted into a mosque. The idol was taken out of the temple. Some of the images sculptured on walls or doors or pillars were effaced completely, some were defaced. But the structure of the idol-house kept standing as before. Materials from twenty-seven temples, which were worth five crores and forty lakhs of Dilwals, were used in the mosque, and an inscription giving the date of conquest and his own name was installed on the eastern gate…When Malwah and Ujjain were conquered by Sultan Shamsud-Din in AH 631 corresponding to CE 1233, then the idol-house of Mahakal was demolished and its idols as well as the statue of Raja Bikramajit were brought to Delhi, they were strewn in front of the door of the mosque…”
“In books of history, this mosque has been described as Masjid-i-adinah and Jama Masjid Delhi, but Masjid Quwwat al-Islam is mentioned nowhere. It is not known as to when this name was adopted. Obviously, it seems that when this idol-house was captured, and the mosque constructed, it was named Quwwat al-Islam…”
Sultan Shamsud-Din Iltutmish (CE 1210-1236)
Tomb of Sultan Ghori:
Sayyid Ahmad Khan notices this tomb and describes it as exquisite. He says that it was built in AH 626 corresponding to CE 1228…But the editor, Khaleeq Anjum, comments in his introduction that “the dome of the mosque which is of marble has been re-used and has probably been obtained from some temple”, and that the domes on the four pavilions outside “are in Hindu style in their interior.” He provides greater details in his notes at the end of Sayyid Ahmad’s work. He writes:
“…This is the first Muslim tomb in North India, if we overlook some others. And it is the third historical Muslim monument in India after Quwwat al-Islam Masjid and Cehai Din Ka Jhonpra… Stones from Hindu temples have been used in this tomb also, as in the Quwwat al-Islam Masjid.”
“…In the middle of the corridor on the west there is a marble dome. A look at the dome leads to the conclusion that it has been brought from some temple. The pillars that have been raised in the western corridor are of marble and have been made in Greek style. It is clear that they belong to some other building…”
Sultan Ghiyasud-Din Tughlaq (CE 1320-1325)
Tomb of Ghiyasud-Din Tughlaq:
Similarly, Sayyid Ahmad notices this tomb in some detail but does not describe its Hindu features. Khaleeq Anjum, however, says in his introduction that “corridors inside this tomb have been constructed in the style of Hindu architecture, and the pillars as well as the beams in the corridors are fully of Hindu fashion.”
Nasirud-Din Muhammad Humayun Padshah Ghazi (CE 1530-1540 and 1556)
Nili Chhatri:
“At the foot of Salim Garh and on the bank of the Jamuna, there is a small Baradari near Nigambodh Ghat… It is known as Nili Chhatri because of the blue mosaic work on its dome. This Chhatri was built by Humayun Badshah in AH 939 corresponding to CE 1533 in order to have a view of the river. Hindus ascribe this Chhatri to the time of the PaNDus. Even if that is not true, this much is certain that the bricks with mosaic work which have been used in this Chhatri have been taken from some Hindu place because the bricks bear broken and mutilated images. On account of a derangement of the carvings, some have only the head left, while some others show only the torso. This derangement of carvings also goes to prove that these bricks have been placed here after being taken out from somewhere else. According to the Hindus, Raja Judhastar had performed a Jag [Yajna] at this Ghat. It is not inconceivable that in the Hindu era a Chhatri had been built at some spot on this Ghat in commemoration of the Jag, and that this Chhatri was built in the reign of Humayun after demolition of that (older) Chhatri…He repeats some of these comments while describing the Nigambodh Ghat…

(71) Hadiqah-i-Shuhada was written in the reign of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah of Awadh (CE 1847-1856) by Mirza Ali Jan, an eyewitness of and active participant in the jihad led by Amir Ali Amethawi in 1855 for recapturing the Hanuman Garhi temple at Ayodhya. The temple had been converted into a mosque in the reign of Aurangzeb but restored when Muslim power suffered an eclipse. The work was written immediately after the failure of the jihad and published in 1856.
Zahirud-Din Muhammad Babur Padshah Ghazi (CE 1026-1030)
Ayodhya (Uttar Pradesh)
“Wherever they found magnificent temples of the Hindus ever since the establishment of Sayyid Salar Masud Ghazi’s rule, the Muslim rulers in India built mosques, monasteries and inns, appointed muazzins, teachers, and store-stewards, spread Islam vigorously and vanquished the Kafirs. Likewise, they cleared up Faizabad and Avadh, too, from the filth of reprobation (infidelity), because it was a great centre of worship and capital of Rama’s father. Where there stood the great temple (of Ramjanmasthan), there they built a big mosque, and where there was a small mandap (pavilion), there they erected a camp mosque (masjid-i-mukhtasar-i-qanati). The Janmasthan temple is the principal place of Rama’s incarnation, adjacent to which is the Sita ki Rasoi. Hence, what a lofty mosque was built there by king Babar in AH 923 (CE 1528) under the patronage of Musa Ashiqan! The mosque is still known far and wide as the Sita ki Rasoi mosque. And that temple is extant by its side (aur pahlu mein wah dair baqi hai).”

(72) Muraqqa-i-Khusrawi was completed in 1869 by Sheikh Azmat Ali Kakorwi Nami who was an eyewitness of the reign of Wajid Ali Shah. The work, known as Tarikh-i-Awadh also, was published for the first time in 1986 by the Fakhruddin Ali Ahmad Committee, U.P., Lucknow, but the chapter dealing with the jihad led by Amir Ali Amethawi was left out. This chapter was published separately by Dr. Zaki Kakorawi from Lucknow in 1987.
Zahirud-Din Muhammad Babur Padshah Ghazi (CE 1526-1530)
Ayodhya (Uttar Pradesh)
“According to old records, it has been a rule with the Muslim rulers from the first to build mosques, monasteries, and inns, spread Islam, and put (a stop to) non-Islamic practices, wherever they found prominence (of kufr). Accordingly, even as they cleared up Mathura, Bindraban etc., from the rubbish of non-Islamic practices, the Babari mosque was built up in AH 923 under the patronage of Sayyid Musa Ashiqan in the Janmasthan temple (butkhane Janmsthan mein) in Faizabad Avadh, which was a great place of (worship) and capital of Rama’s father…A great mosque was built on the spot where Sita ki Rasoi is situated. During the regime of Babar, the Hindus had no guts to be a match for the Muslims. The mosque was built in AH 923 under the patronage of Sayyid Mir Ashiqan… Aurangzeb built a mosque on the Hanuman Garhi… The Bairagis effaced the mosque and erected a temple in its place. Then idols began to be worshipped openly in the Babari mosque where the Sita ki Rasoi is situated.”

(73) Waqiat-i-Mamalakat-i-Bijapur is an Urdu work compiled in 3 volumes by Bashirud-Din Ahmad in CE 1913-14 and published from Agra in 1915. The first two volumes are translations of Basatin al-Salatin, a general history of Bijapur written in 1811 by Muhammad Ibrahim Zubairi. The third volume contains details collected by Bashirud-Din Ahmad himself from the life-stories and sayings of Sufis.
Sultan Ali adil Shah I of Bijapur (CE 1558-1580)
Mudgal (Karnataka) “
And in Mudgal town located 75 miles south-east of Bijapur Ali I tore down two temples and replaced them with ashurkhanas, or houses used in the celebration of Shia festivals.”

to be continued….

part 1:enslavement of non-Muslims

part 4: the myth of the role of Sufis in conversion

part 9: economic decline under Islam

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5 Responses to “How Islam came to India and why now it needs to go from India – 8 – cultural destruction of non-Muslims”

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Hard shell of Islam has started cracking from within now. More than printed media the internet,computer,videos on internet,cablenetwork have exposed the nakedness and ugly face of Islam/Quran/Hadiths and shariat and Sunna,Mullas & Maderssas. Hats off to hunderds of ex-muslims websites to expose the evil face of Islam and hate speeches of Quran.Many learned ppl are being educated by ex-muslims and non-muslim intellectuals of various nationalities and shades all over the world.Jihadi and muslim-terrorists have helped a lot to expose the ugly face of de-humanising ideology of Islam. Comming generations will hold with great respect the name of Abul Kasem,Imile Imani,WafaSultana,Ayan Hirsi Ali,MA Khan,Ibrahim Lone,Ali Sina,Shoeb, Sohail,Robert Spencer.LionHeart,Nasreen ,Mustafa Reza, and many many more like these.Within 40 to 50 yrs this evil ideoogy will evaporate.

When Muslims got Pakistan why are they still in India India should be totally for hindus as muslims have got their pakistan we dont need the word Islam in India.also the article reflects what is the aim of Islamists hindu ghatao aur Islam badhao.

Mr. Sunil, the whole article is lost upon you it seems. The article starts with sneering at two nations in the world alone who are based on religions. Do you wanna make india a third nation of that sort … hahahahahaha … losers.

Mr Das In case you don’t know India has many other religion’s like jainism, sikhism, buddhism and minority Jew’s apart from Hinduism.There is certainly no place for a radical Ideology masquerading itself as religion(called Islam).I guess not only India but the planet would be better off without this radical Ideology.

It is known from this article that the Islam is nothing but a destroyer of the other religious. And it is also known that when they came to this country thousands of temple and godess image has been looted and made their moushque i.e. which may be called jabar-dasti captured our land and eevery thing. my question is that after a long time past of our freedom why the Government is not able to recaptured the area and moushque and reebuild the temple ? Why govt. still obeying the Islam’s property now?


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