Mumbai Masala from “God remembers”- on a source of Islamic propaganda protected by India : 2

Posted on September 10, 2008. Filed under: Islam, Islamic propaganda, Muslims, Politics, religion, terrorism |

LIE 3: THE QURANIC EXHORTATION TO BRING DOWN VIOLENT RETRIBUTION ON THE UNBELIEVERS WAS ONLY IN THE CONTEXT OF URGING MUSLIM SOLDIERS TO FIGHT AGAINST MECCANS WHO HAD ATTACKED MUSLIMS:

We will see that the Quran carefully omits any mentions of who started this “war” – Meccans or Muslims, and deliberately does not give the history of the “war”. We will see what the nature of this “war” was – war as we understand even in the historical sense or simply ambushes and raids. To do this we first briefly recount the history of the quarrel with the Meccans as narrated in the Quran and the biographies. We will not deal with the other possible personal motivations in Muhammad as far as accusations of “deprivation” of an “orphan” from his “rights” are concerned, as these are not explicitly and directly stated in the Quran, and was also probably not intended to be revealed in the Quran as it might have detracted from the “spiritual” stance of the “revelation” and and revealed “mundane” “human” weaknesses of greed for property, wealth and women.

The Prophet had kept his mission concealed for three years after he received the first revelations. The Muslim brotherhood had functioned as a secret society. Ibn Ishaq gives a list of persons who had joined.[Ibn Ishaq],  “The advantage of the darkness for the first few years was great. The darkness saved it from being crushed at the outset. Ridicule and contempt could be more easily endured when some hundred persons were involved, than if the Prophet had been compelled to endure them by himself. It saved him, too, from the character of the eccentric sage (such as Waraqa and others had borne), investing him from his first public appearance with that of the leader of a party; it gave the Prophet time to secure over a reasonable number of people that influence which he could exercise to a reasonable degree.”[D.S. Margoliouth, Mohammed and the Rise of Islam, London, 1905, New Delhi Reprint. 1985 – p 112]. People in Mecca apparently took notice of the “deviation” quite early. From the first, Muslims had been directed by Allah to offer prayers in congregation. They could not do it inside the city so long as they were an underground organisation. “When the apostles companions prayed,” reports Ibn Ishaq, “they went to the glens so that people could not see them praying, and while Sad b. Abu Waqqas was with a number of the prophets companions in one of the glens of Mecca, a band of polytheists came upon them while they were praying and rudely interrupted them. They blamed them for what they were doing until they came to blows, and it was on that occasion that Sad smote a polytheist with the jawbone of a camel and wounded him. That was the first blood to be shed in Islam.” No reprisals from the pagan side are reported. Just as in modern societies, the pluralistic society at Mecca faced with an aggressive and determined minority, were incredulous that such ideologies could at all be propagandized by normal human beings. “People began to accept Islam, both men and women, in large numbers until the fame of it spread throughout Mecca, and it began to be talked about[Note that the amused tolerance of bigotry and hatred or provocation without an overwhelming immediate retaliation, encouraged the weak, the alienated, the bored  and those with a “grievance” against the existing system to veer towards this “empowering” ideology that promises not only the “heaven” and the “earth” but perhaps more of the latter – as in the rise of modern totalitarian regimes – so that later people wonder “if only we were not so tolerant”]. Then God commanded His apostle to declare the truth of what he had received and make known His commandments to men and call them to Him. Three years elapsed from the time the apostle concealed his state until God commanded him to publish his religion, according to information which has reached me. Then God said, Proclaim what you have been ordered and turn aside from the polytheists.”[Ishaq, Quran, 15.8-9, 94]

The ideology proclaimed was a quite simple inversion of the prevalent Judaeo-Chrstian traditions -Apocalypse-Qyamat, resurrection and Last Judgement, [from this point the inversion starts] only the believers in the “Ilah” named “Allah” as the only god and in Muhammad as the last Prophet will enter paradise for an everlasting life of the moset delectable of earthly pleasures; anyone assigning partners to “Allah” or denied Muhammad’s prophethood or did both will be subject to the worst of hell-fire and everlasting tortures. Right from the beginning, it was categorically stated that belief in Allah as the only God was not enough; it had to he accompanied by the belief that Muhammad was the only mediator through whom Allahs mercy could be sought or obtained. “To avow Islam meant to renounce publicly the national worship, to ridicule, and if possible to break down idols, and unabashedly to use the new salutation and to celebrate the new-fangled rites. For it must be remembered that Islam was in its nature polemical. Its Allah was not satisfied with worship, unless similar honour was paid to no other name; and his worship also was intolerant of idols, and of all rites not instituted by himself… Mohammed and Abu Bakr were planning an attack on the national religion, that cult which every Meccan proudly remembered had within their memory been defended by a miracle from the Abyssinian invaders and in their myths had often thus triumphed before. The gods they worshipped were, Mohammed and Abu Bakr asserted, no gods. For their worship these innovators would substitute that of the Jews whose power in South Arabia had recently been overthrown, and of the Christians with whose defeat the national spirit of Arabia had just awakened.”[D.S. Margoliouth, p. 118-19]. At first the “pagan”s led several delegations to Abu Talib, Muhammads uncle and guardian. They told him that his nephew had “cursed our gods, insulted our religion, mocked our way of life and accused our forefathers of error”, and requested him to restrain his nephew. Abu Talib was conciliatory and tried to persuade Muhammad to go slow. “Do not put on me a burden greater than I can bear”, he said to his nephew. But the Prophet “continued on his way, publishing Gods religion and calling men therein.”[Ibn Ishaq] Muhammad was married to a rich woman, Khadijah, and controlled her considerable wealth which he used for supporting his uncles family as well as in the service of the mission to which his wife also subscribed. It has to be kept in mind that at this stage, the pre-Islamic Arabs gave a lot of rights, liberties and positions of influence or power to women, and were quite “permissive” as revealed in some of the “sensual” Hadiths.

Islam’s impact on Meccan society was extremely disruptive as al-Walid b. al-Mughira, a man of standing in Mecca, observed, Muhammad looked like “a sorcerer who has brought a message by which he separates a man from his father, or from his brother, or from his wife, or from his family.”[Ibn Ishaq]. “The view prevalent at Meccah concerning Mohammad appears to have been that he was mad-under the influence of a Jinn, one of the beings who were supposed to speak through poets and sorcerers. That this charge stung Mohammed to the quick may be inferred from the virulence with which he rejects it, and the invective with which he attacks the bastard who had uttered it. He charges the author of the outrage with being unable to write and with being over head and ears in debt and threatens to brand him on his proboscis.[D.S. Margoliouth, p. 121]” Allah declared to his prophet: “You are not a mad man… And you will see and they will see, which of you is the demented. Therefore obey not you the rejecters, who would have you compromise, that they may compromise: Neither obey you each feeble oath-monger, detractor, spreader abroad of slanders, hinderer, of the good, an aggressor, malefactor, greedy therewithal, intrusive. We shall brand him on the nose.”[Quran, 68.2, 5-6, 8-13]. One day some Meccans were assembled in the precincts of the Kaba when Muhammad was passing by and made some remarks. Muhammad retorted that, “By him who holds my life in His hand, I bring you slaughter.”[Ibn Ishaq]. The Meccans probably thought this was due to some “demonic possession” as part of the beliefs of that time, for they sent Utba b. Rabia, one of their chiefs, to Muhammad. Utba offered psychiatric help to Muhammad , “If this ghost which comes to you, which you see, is such that you cannot get rid of him, we will find a physician for you, and exhaust our means in getting you cured, for often a spirit gets possession of a man until he can be cured of it.”[Ibn Ishaq] The Prophet’s reactions convinced Utba that Muhammad was quite sane and advised the Meccans to leave him alone. “If (other) Arabs kill him, others will have rid you of him,” he said.[Ishaq]

What were the questions which the Meccans posed against Muhammad’s faith and what were their observations? “The objections recorded and ostensibly answered in the Koran appear to have been directed against every part and feature of the new system; against Mohammed personally, against his notion of prophecy, against his style, his statements, his doctrines. It is impossible to suggest any chronological scheme for them.”[D.S. Margoliouth]. The manner in which the debate is recorded in the Quran is somewhat strange. The Meccans must have said what they said, to Muhammad and his Muslims directly, or among themselves. But the answers come invariably from Allah in the form of revelations. “The debate with which the earlier years were filled was conducted in a variety of ways. Occasionally the Prophet himself condescended to enter the arena, and confront his antagonists: he was indeed a powerful preacher and when he talked of the Day of Judgment his cheeks blazed, and his voice rose, and his manner was fiery; apparently, however, he was not a ready debater, and was worsted when he tried the plan. Moreover, his temper in debate was not easily controlled, and he was apt to give violent and insulting answers to questioners.  He therefore received divine instruction not to take part in open debate, to evade the question and if questioned by the unbelievers, retire.” [Margoliouth, Quran 6.67]. Muhammad’s biographers indicate that a debate took place during his “mission” at Mecca but their versions reflect only the side of Muhammad, apart from being sketchy. The points the Meccans made are preceded by “They say”, and Allahs rejoinders by the phrase, “Say”. Quite often, the debate is reported as having taken place between some earlier “prophet” and his people but implied to be similar to or a  It is obvious, however, that the participants meant are Muhammad and his pagan contemporaries, “More often then the controversy was conducted as it is… in election times, when different speakers address different meetings. The points are recorded and reported by members of the audience to the antagonists; who then proceed if they deem it worth while, in some manner to reply.”[Margoliouth]

To start with, the Meccans felt amused that a man like Muhammad, who was distinguished neither by birth nor breeding, should strut around proclaiming himself a prophet. Muhammad’s followers also came from classes and occupations which were not very respectable according to Meccan standards. Allah reports: “When they see you (O Muhammad) they treat you as a jest saying: Is he (the man) whom Allah has sent as a messenger?  He would have led us far away from our gods if we had not been staunch to them… Has he invented a lie concerning Allah or is there some madness in him? …Shall we forsake our gods for a mad poet? …Or one of the gods has possessed you in an evil way… Shall we put faith in you when the lowest (people) follow you? …We see you but mortal (man) like us, and we see not that any save the most abject among us follow you, without reflection. We behold in you no merit above us-nay, we deem you liars… We are surely better than this fellow who can hardly make (his meaning) clear… We do not understand much of what you say, and we see you weak among us… We are more (than you) in wealth, and in children… Why are not angels sent down unto us, and why do we not see our Lord? …If you cease not, you will soon be the outcast.”[“Quran 25.41-42. 34.8; 37.36; 11.54; 26.111; 11.27; 43.52; 11.91; 34.35; 25.21; 26.167.]

There is no reply from Allah about Muhammad’s birth and breeding. About Muhammad’ss followers he says that their past is not relevant after they have come to the true faith. He assures the Meccans that Muhammad is neither mad, nor a poet, nor possessed. He laments that the Meccans think too highly of themselves and are proud and scornful. He assures Muhammad that the time is fast approaching when it will be found out who is really mad, and that the disbelievers shall stand humbled.

Muhammad’s and his followers alleged low birth and lack of breeding appeared to the Meccans of the seventh century as in almost all contemporary societies, to be a disqualification to be a messenger from Allah. That Muslim biographers of Muhammad also gave a lot of importance to “distinguished” descent is revealed in their elaborate reconstruction of Muhammad’s descent from Adam. Margoliouth has cited several early Muslim sources to conclude that Muhammad’s grandfather, Abd al-Muttalib, was a manumitted slave who made his living by means which were not considered honourable in Mecca at that time, namely, lending money and providing water and food to the pilgrims for a consideration.[Margoliouth] But the Quran shows that, even Allah reacts extremely negatively to such taunts based on alleged “lowly origins” and indicates that “origins” were extremely important and significant in early Islam, as if they were not important they should have been no cause for anguish or retaliation.
Another point which provided amusement to the Meccans was the Prophets incapacity to perform miracles. He had himself invited the trouble by producing revelations in which the preceding prophets, particularly Moses and Jesus, had exhibited supernatural powers. Allah reports: “They say: This is only a mortal like you who would make himself superior to you… He is only a man in whom there is a madness. So watch him for a while… This is only a mortal like you who eats whereof you eat, and drinks of what you drink… If you were to obey a mortal like yourselves, you surely will be losers… What ails the messenger of Allah that he eats and walks in the markets? …You are but mortals like us who would fain turn us away from what our fathers used to worship… shall mere mortals guide us? …You are but a mortal man like us. RaHman has naught revealed to you but a lie… Is this other than a mortal man? Will you then succumb to magic when you see it? …So bring some token if you are of the truthful… If only some portent were sent down upon him from his Lord … If only he would bring us a miracle from the Lord… Why are no portents sent down upon him? …Why then have armlets of gold not been set upon him, or angles sent along with him? …We shall not put faith in you till you cause a spring to gush forth from the earth for us, or you have a garden of date-palms and grapes and cause rivers to gush forth therein abundantly, or you cause the heavens to fall piecemeal as you have pretended, or bring Allah and the angels as warrant, or you have a house of gold, or you ascend into heaven, and even then we will put no faith in your ascension till you bring down a book that we can read… Or why is not treasure thrown down unto him or why has he not a paradise from whence to eat? …You are following but a man bewitched…”[Quran. 23.24,25,33,34; 2S.6; 14.10; 64.60; 36.15; 21.3; 26.154; 13.7; 20.133; 29.50-, 43.53; 17.90-93; 25.8. The Meccans (36.15) have a fling at Rahman, the name which the Prophet gave to Allah quite frequently. They hated this name].
Allah assures the Meccans: “Your comrade errs not, nor is deceived… Surely he beheld him (the angel) on the horizon. Nor is he avid of the unseen…” He commands Muhammad: “Say: You are a warner only… Say: I am naught save a mortal messenger… Portents are with Allah and I am a warner only… Allah is able to send down a portent.  But most of them known not…” He reminds Muhammed that the Meccans are not likely to believe even if a miracle is shown to them. “The hour drew nigh and the moon was rent in twain. And if they behold a portent, they turn away and say: Prolonged illusion.” [Quran 53.2; 81.23-24; 29.50; 13.7; 54.1-2].
According to some commentators on the Quran, this revelation refers to an actual miracle performed by the Prophet. One night the moon had split into two and Mount Hara was seen standing between the two parts. But the Meccans dismissed it as an illusion. Other commentators, however, say that this refers to a future event when the Last Day will be near at hand. The Meccans stood firm by their gods; their faith in the gods was not at all shaken by Muhammad’s attacks. Allah reports: “When it was said unto them, There is no God save Allah, they were scornful, and said: Shall we forsake our gods for a mad poet?… And they marvel that a warner from among themselves has come.  They say: This is a wizard, a charlatan. Makes he the gods One God? This is an astounding thing… The chiefs among them go about exhorting: Go and be staunch by your gods. This is a thing designed (against) you. We have not heard this earlier in our religion. This is naught but an invention. Has a Reminder been revealed unto him alone among us?… Why not Allah speak to us, or some sign come to us?… Had Allah willed we would not have ascribed (unto him) partners, neither our forefathers… Had Allah willed we would not have worshipped aught beside Him, we and our forefathers, nor forbidden aught commanded from Him… We worship them only that they may bring us near unto Allah… He has invented a lie about Allah…”[Quran 37.35-36; 38.4-8; 2.183; 6.149; 39.3; 42.24]. Some of their observations were addressed to Muhammad, though reported by Allah: “Enough for us is that wherein we found our forefathers. Have you come to us that we serve Allah alone and forsake what our fathers worshipped? Do you ask us not to worship what our forefathers worshipped? We are in grave doubt concerning that to which you call us… Does your way of prayer command you that we should forsake that which our forefathers worshipped ?… We found our forefathers following a religion, and we are guided by their footprints. In what you bring we are disbelievers… O Wizard! Entreat your Lord by the pact he has made with you, so that we may walk aright…”[5.104; 7.70; 11.62; 11.87; 43.22,24,49].

The Meccans were obviously vehemently opposed to the name which Muhammad wanted to foist on Allah: “When they see you, they but choose you out of mockery: Is this (the man) who makes mockery of our gods?  And they would deny all mention of the Rahman… And when they are asked to adore RaHman, they say: What is Rahman?  Are we to adore whatever you bid us? And it increases aversion in them… And when the son of Mary is quoted as an example, behold! the folk laugh out, and say: Are our gods better, or is he?… They call our revelations false with strong denial… And when the Quran is recited unto them, they do not prostrate themselves.”[Quran 21.36; 25.60; 43.57-58; 78.28; 84.21]. But, as Muhammad persisted in reviling their gods, the Meccans decided to protest and said: “Muhammad, you will either stop cursing our gods, or we will curse your Allah.” having realized that the Allah whose will Muhammad was revealing was not the Allah they worshipped. Allah of the Quran felt concerned at this new turn and revealed, “Had Allah willed, they would not have been idolatrous. We have not set you as a keeper over them, nor are you responsible for them. Revile not those unto whom they pray beside Allah lest they wrongfully revile Allah through ignorance.”[Quran 6.108-109] Ibn Ishaq observes: “I have been told that the apostle refrained from cursing their gods, and began to call them to Allah.[Ibn Ishaq]

The Meccans, were not at all impressed by the revelations produced by the Prophet and they did not accept his claim that he received them from some higher source. They thought that he was inventing them himself. Allah reports: “They say: This is naught else than the speech of a mortal man… This is naught else than an invented lie… Nay, say they, (these are but) muddled dreams, he has but invented it; nay, he is but a poet… And when our revelations are recited unto them, they say: We have heard. If we wish we can speak the like of this. This is naught but fables of the men of old…”[Quran,74.25; 34.43 (also 11.13,35;32.3;34.43;46.8; 52.33); 21.5; 8.3l]. Muhammad threw a challenge to the Meccans. Allah prompted him: “Say: Then bring a surah like unto it, and call (for help) all you can besides Allah if you are truthful.”[Quran 10.38]. The challenge was accepted by al-Nadr b. Harith, a Meccan chief, who said: “I can tell a better story than he… In what respect is Muhammad a better story-teller?”[Ibn Ishaq],  He told several stories in verses which were like verses of the Quran. Muhammad felt outraged and never forgave al-NaDr. “The effect of the criticism must have been very damaging; for when the Prophet at the battle of Badr got the man into his power, he executed him at once while he allowed the others to be ransomed.”[D.S. Margoliouth]  Ibn Ishaq confirms that when the apostle was at al-Safra on his way back from Badr. “al-Nadr was killed by Ali…”[Ibn Ishaq],  But while the Prophet was still in Mecca, Allah thought it wise to pacify the pagans and revealed: “It is not a poets speech… nor diviners speech. And if he had invented false sayings, we assuredly had taken him by the right hand, and severed his life-artery, and not one of you could have held us off from him.”[Quran, 69, 41-42. 44-47]. The more knowledgeable among the Meccans suspected that Muhammad was only repeating what he had learnt from the People of the Book, Jews and Christians. Allah reports: “They say: And we know well that only a man teaches him… This is naught but a lie that he has invented and other folk have helped him so that they produced a slander and a lie… Fables of men of old which he has written down so that they are dictated to him morn and evening… One taught (by others), a mad man…” [Quran16.103; 25.4-5; 44.14. The Meccan allegation shows that Muhammad was not an illiterate as is asserted even in the Quran (29.46,49)]. There were several stories current in Mecca regarding the particular person or persons who coached Muhammad in biblical lore which, they said, was all that came out in the Quran. “One account says it was Jabar, a Greek servant to Amer Ebn al Hadrami, who could read and write well; another, that they were Jabar and Yesar, two slaves who followed the trade of sword cutlers at Mecca, and used to read the pentateuch and gospel and had often Mohammed as their auditor, when he passed that way. Another tells us it was Aish, or Yasih, a domestic of al Haweiteb Ebn Abd al Uzza, who was a man of some learning, and had embraced Mohammedanism. Another supposes it was Kais, a Christian, whose house Muhammad frequented; another, that it was Addas, a servant of Otba Ebn Rabia…”[George Sale, The Koran or Alcoran of Mohammed, London (n.d). p. 233, footnote 1.]

Having seen the People of the Book from close quarters, the Meccans found it difficult to believe that divine knowledge had been sent to the Jews and the Christians long ago, and that they themselves were deprived of it till the advent of Muhammad. Allah proceeds: “They say: The Scripture was revealed only to two sets of people before us, and we in sooth were not aware of what they read… If the Scripture had been revealed unto us, we surely would have been better guided than are they… Two magics which support each other… In both we are disbelievers… If it had been any good they would not have been before us in attaining it… This is an ancient lie.”[Quran, 6.157-58; 28.48; 46.11] It had also been noticed that Muhammad produced revelations according to his convenience in the debate. Allah complained: “And when we put a revelation in place of (another), they say: You are but inventing… Why is not the Quran revealed unto him all at one.”[Quran 16.101; 25.32]; Allah had himself revealed that the Quran was being read out from a “well guarded tablet” preserved in the highest heaven. Why was it then being doled out in bits and pieces? The Meccans suspected that the Prophet was inventing verses as occasion demanded and  their suspicion was confirmed in the so-called Satanic Verses. Tabari reports: “When the apostle saw that his people turned their backs on him and he was pained by their estrangement from what he brought them from God he longed that there should come to him from God a message that would reconcile his people to him… Then God sent down, Have ye thought of Al-Lat and al-Uzza and Manat the third, the other, these are the exalted Gharaniq whose intercession is approved.” The Meccans felt happy and thought that the strife was over, now that Muhammad had endorsed their Goddesses. But Muhammad had to face his own followers who felt betrayed. The verses were withdrawn soon after and replaced by another revelation. “So God annulled what Satan had suggested and God established His verses.”[Ibn Ishaq, Allahs replacement of the “Satanic Verses” are in the Quran. 53.19-17]

So the Meccans turned down the Quran totally and finally. Allah reports: “Their chieftains said: We surely see you in foolishness and we deem you of the liars… It is all one to us whether you preach or are not of those who preach… Our hearts are protected from that unto which you (Muhammad) call us, and in our ears there is deafness, and between us and you there is a veil… They say (to their people): Heed not this Quran, and drown the hearing of it.” [Quran, 7.66; 26.136; 41.5. 46.26.] Having reaffirmed their Gods and rejected Muhammad’s prophethood as well as revelations, the Meccans made fun of the Last Day (Yaumul akhir) which is described by Allah variously as Day of Resurrection (Yaumul Qiyamah), Day of Separation (Yaumul Fasl), Day of Reckoning (Yaumul Hisab), Day of Awakening (Yaumul Bal), Day of Judgment (Yaumul Din), Day of Encompassing (Yaumul MuHit) or simply as The Hour (As-Saah). [Quran 2.79; 77.14; 40.28; 30.56; 1.3; 11.85.]
“For Muhammad, a revivalist preacher seeking to strike terror in his hearers, the doctrines of resurrection and of the judgment were of the first importance, and the Quran, in consequence, is full of references to them.”[First Encyclopaedia of Islam,  Vol. IV, p.1018], on this day, the dead are to be raised, judged, and sent to eternal heaven if they were believers, and to an eternal hell if they were unbelievers. The pagan Arabs, on the other hand, believed in survival of the human personality after death as far as the retrievable outlines of the Sabateans belief and  they stood for transmigration of souls.[Encyclopaedia Americana, New York, 1952, Vol. XXIV, p. 77]. So “the notion of the reconstruction of the decayed body seemed to them in the highest degree absurd, and Mohammed’s promise of heavenly spouses occasioned mirth”[D. S. Margoliouth].  Allah reports: “They say: Shall we show you a man who will tell you (that) when you have become dispersed in death, with the most complete dispersal, still even then, you will be created anew. Has he invented a lie concerning Allah or is there in him a madness?… This is a strange thing: When we are dead and have become dust like our forefathers, shall we verily be brought back?  We were promised this forsooth, we and our forefathers. This is naught but fables of the men of old. Bring back our fathers if you speak the truth… When we are lost in the earth, how can we then be recreated?… Shall we really be restored to our first state: Even after we are crumbled bones?  Then that will be a vain proceeding… There is naught but our life of this world; we die and we live, and naught destroys us save Time… We deem it but a conjecture, and are by no means convinced… And they swear by Allah their most binding oaths (that) Allah will not raise him who dies…”[Quran, 34.7-8; 50.2-3; 27.67-68; 44.36; 45.32; 32.10; 79.10-12, 45 24, 32; 16.38. The reference to the earlier promise points to the Jews who had been proclaiming for a long time that the forefathers of the Arabs will be raised again and judged]. Allah replies in the Quran: “We know what the earth takes, and with us is a recording Book… Thinks man we shall not assemble his bones. We are able to restore his very finger… Surely it will need but one Shout, and they will be awakened… Those of old and those of later times, will all be brought together to the tryst of an appointed day. Then you the deniers, you will eat of a tree called Zaqqum, and will fill your bellies therewith and thereon you will drink of boiling water, drinking as the camel drinks. This will be their welcome on the Day of Judgment…”[Quran 50.4; 75.3-4; 79.13-14; 56.49-57].

The Meccans, however, were not cowed down by these threats. They challenged Muhammad to hurry up and bring down the doom upon them. Allah reports: “They say: You have disputed with us and multiplied disputation with us. Now bring down upon us that wherewith you threaten us, if you are truthful… O Allah! if this be indeed the truth from you, rain down stones on us or bring us some painful doom… Our Lord! Hasten us for our fate before the Day of Reckoning… They ask you of the Hour: When will it come to port?… When will the promise be fulfilled, if you are truthful? When is the Day of Judgment?… They say: The hour will never come to us…”[Quran 11.22; 8.32; 48.16; 7.187; 10.48; 32.28; 51.13; 34.3]. The Meccans threw this challenge repeatedly according to the Quran. Muhammad had to wriggle out of the situation. Allah reports: “Say: Knowledge thereof is with my Lord. He alone will manifest it at the proper time… It comes not to you save unawares… But Allah will not punish them while you (Muhammad) are with them… For every nation there is an appointed time… It is (only) then when it has befallen that you will believe… And it is in the Scriptures of the men of old. Is it not a portent for them that the doctors of the Children of Israel know it? …You are but a warner sent unto them… So withdraw from them and await (the event)…”[Quran 7.187.8.33:10.49,51; 26.96-87; 79.45].

“Thus then the years of the debate rolled on; in which parties increased in vehemence and antagonism, and in which the successful polemics of the Meccans on the new religion were met by ridicule and refutation of the religious notions current among the pagans. As has been said, the Meccan side is known only from the statements of the adversary, whose acquaintance with the Meccan religion may not have been very deep…”[ Margoliouth] The poet Abu Qays b. al-Aslat whose pseudonym was Sayfi summed up the pagan position in an appeal to an obviously approachable “Lord of all humanity” and not the particular “Lord of all Muslims”:
Lord of mankind, serious things have happened.
The difficult and the simple are involved.
Lord of mankind, if we have erred
Guide us to the good path.
Were it not for our Lord we should be Jews
And the religion of Jews is not convenient.
Were it not for our Lord we should be, Christians
Along with the monks on Mount Jalil.
But when we were created we were created
Hanifs; our religion is from all generations.[Ibn Ishaq]

Commenting on the last phase of the Meccan Suras, F. Buhl says: “It is the weakest part of the Quran, in which Muhammad’s imagination became exhausted, and he was content with tiresome repetitions of his earlier ideas and especially with the tales of the prophets. The form becomes discursive, and more prosaic… The passages belonging to it show clearly that Muhammad would have become intellectually bankrupt if the migration to Medina had not aroused him to a new effort…”[First Encyclopaedia of Islam, Volume IV, p. 1075]

The bulk of the Quran covers the Meccan period in the life of the Prophet. We do not find in any of the chapters even the hint of any physical method used by the Meccans towards Muhammad or his Muslims. The only violence we come across is in the language of Allah who frets and fumes and threatens the Meccans with dire consequences, all too frequently and for no other reason than that the Meccans refuse to accept what is written in the scriptures of the Jews and the Christians, and stick to their own ancient religion.  the only contemporary source available to us, namely, the Quran does not support even with a single instance the claim by the biographers of Muhammad, that while the Prophet argued his case with patience and in a reasoned manner, his opponents did not know how to meet the challenge and resorted to physical methods. We find no evidence for these stories in Quran. On the contrary, the biographers provide several broad hints of violence threatened or committed by the zealots of Islam in the streets of Mecca. For instance, when Umar became a Muslim, he went to the Kaba and proclaimed to his fellow citizens, “There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is the apostle of Allah!  Whoever of you moves, I shall cut off his head with my bright scimitar, and shall send him to the Mansion of destruction.”[The Rauzat-us-Safa, or Garden of Purity by Muhammad bin Khavendshah bin Mahmud translated into English by E. Rehatsek, first published 1893, Delhi Reprint 1982, Vol. I, pt. II, p. 183.] Margoliouth observes: “The persons whose accession to Islam was most welcomed were men of physical strength, and much actual fighting must have taken place at Meccah before the Flight; else the readiness with which the Moslems after the Flight could produce from their number tried champions would be inexplicable. A tried champion must have been tried somewhere…”[Margoliouth]

We can take up the exact procedure of the “Migration” later on in a different context. There is comprehensive evidence, that the first followers of Muhammad were quite poor and had very little or no wealth and property at Mecca. There is no evidence even in the Quran that the Meccans physically “harmed” Muslims without any physical provocation on the part of Muslims. Even if the Meccans had reacted “physically” to all that Muhammad threatens the Meccans with, as well as his attacks on their beliefs and religious practices, it would have been entirely consistent with how Muslims have reacted to any verbal criticism on their own beliefs or claims by non-Muslims. We will take up the possibility that Muslim aggression and violence became so intolerable that the Meccans decided to simply ask the Muslims to leave, and Muhammad negotiated with tribes in Medina not entirely on friendly terms with the influential Meccan Qureysh, for asylum. More pertinent is the fact that, both by financial circumstance as well as lack of reference in the Quran, there is no evidence for looting, abducting for ransom, or killing of Muslims in Mecca by the Qureysh. The fact that all of Muhammad’s adherents, and himself could safely move from Mecca to Medina without any harm at all, including a few women, proves further the non-aggressive policy of the Meccans.

As soon as Muhammad  had migrated to Median, he engaged a few spies to supply him with the intelligence of the movement of Meccan caravans. However, the Quraysh caravans were always well protected with armed security guards, just to prevent it from the plunder of highway bandits. Muhammad wanted to try his luck, as those Meccan caravans were such richly laden with exquisite goods-no Jihadist could resist. Apologist biographers, like Hussein Haykal explain that the Muhajirs from Mecca were homesick and were looking for an opportunity to take revenge. Later, when Muhammad conquered Mecca, none of these ‘homesick’ Muhajirs decided to return permanently to their “beloved” home. Here follows a description of the first few of such many surprise/terror raids on the Quraysh caravan. There is a controversy as to which was the first raid on the Quraysh caravan by Muhammad. Ibn Ishak writes that Muhammad himself conducted the first raid, and it was the raid on a caravan at Waddan. Ibn Ishak’s book is scanty in giving a reasonable dating of these operations. Waqidi writes that the first raid was the raid conducted by Hamzah. Most other biographers agree with Waqidi’s version of the dating of Muhammad’s raids.

(1) The Raid on Quraysh Caravan at al-Is, or the Expedition of Sif al-Bahr by Hamzah ibn al-Muttalib–March, 623CE
The first raid/expedition against the Quraysh caravans took place seven or nine months after the Hijrah. Led by Hamzah ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib (Muhammad’s uncle), with thirty or forty men of the emigrants; the purpose of this raid, as stated earlier, was to plunder the Quraysh caravan. This raiding party of Hamzah assembled at the seacoast near al-Is, between Mecca and Medina, where Abu Jahl ibn Hashim, the leader of the caravan was camping with three hundred Meccan riders. Hamza met Abu Jahl there with a view to attack the caravan, but Majdi b. Amr al-Juhani, a Quraysh who was friendly to both the parties intervened between them; so, both parties separated without fighting. This very first adventure of Muhammad in war and plunder was a failure, Hamza returned to Medina and Abu Jahl proceeded towards Mecca. This raid failed as the Muslims were afraid to face such a formidable convoy of the Quraysh.
(2) Raid on Meccan Caravan at Buwat by Ubaydah b. al-Harith—April, 623CE
This raid took place nine months after the Hijrah, a few weeks after the first raid at al-Is. About a month after Hamzah’s abortive bid for plunder, Muhammad entrusted a party of sixty (or eighty) Jihadists led by Ubaydah b. al-Harith (a cousin of him) to conduct another terror operation at a Quraysh caravan that was returning from Syria and protected by two hundred armed men,. The leader of this caravan was either Abu Sufyan ibn Harb or Ikrima b. Abu Jahl. The Muslim party went as far as Thanyatul-Murra, a watering place in Hejaz. No fighting took place, as the Quraysh were quite far from the place where Muslims were in the offing to attack the caravan. Nevertheless, Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas, shot an arrow at the Quraysh. This was the ‘first arrow of Islam.’ The arrows thrown at them by the Medina party surprised the Quraysh. It was completely an unprovoked attack on the Quraysh that sent the strong message to them about what they could expect next. However, no fighting took place and the Muslims returned empty-handed. Some say that Ubaydah was the first Jihadist to carry the banner of Islam; others say Hamzah  was the first to carry the first banner. Some say that Muhammad commanded Ubaydah to conduct this raid while he (Muhammad) was returning from the raid of al-Abwa.
(3) Raid on a Meccan Caravan at Kharar by Sa’d ibn Waqqas-April, 623CE
The very brave act of Sa’d ibn Waqqas, to shoot arrows at the Quraysh greatly impressed Muhammad. Sa’d had been between twenty to twenty-five years old but in spite of his youth Muhammad deputed him as the leader of a plundering team to lay a siege, with only twenty other Jihadists (some say eight), on the Meccan caravan. All of them were from the Muahjirs (immigrants). So, one month later, the third raid took place under the leadership of a youthful Sa’d’s who set up an ambush in the valley of Kharrar on the road to Mecca and waited to raid a returning Meccan caravan from Syria. They planned a surprise attack but learnt that the ‘booty’ (the Meccan caravan) had already eluded them, just one day before they arrived at the place of plunder. The Muslims returned to Medina crestfallen.
(4) Raid on a Meccan Caravan and on B. Damrah at al-Abwa/ Waddan by Muhammad-August, 623CE
Muhammad personally, took charge of this raiding foray and led his followers.
This was the raid at al-Abwa, also known as the Ghazwah of Waddan. As said before, he himself conducted this raid, directed at Abwa, the spot where his mother lay buried. To his dismay, when he arrived at the site, the Quraysh caravan had already passed. Disappointed, he then raided the nearest tribe of B. Damra (a branch of B. Bakr) and forced them to conclude a treaty of no aggression (by B. Damra). This treaty was the first written accord of Muhammad with any foreign tribe. The agreement was of benefit to Muhammad, as it prevented the B. Damra to mobilize forces against him, nor could they assist Muhammad’s enemy who were principally the Quraysh. In return, Muhammad pledged not to wage any war against this tribe. This is an example of the success of economically non-productive nomadic raiding strategies on settled producers, as simply the constant threat of raids could disrupt the productive processes. Then Muhammad went as far as Waddan in pursuit of the Quraysh caravan, but it eluded him and he returned to Medina after fifteen days.
[Ghazwa means either a military force when an Apostle (Rasul) leads it or an Imam. It also means a sudden attack on a caravan or another tribe for the purpose of seizing property and women. Sariyah or brigade means a small force commanded by one of the Imam’s lieutenants.] Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 52, Number 256: Narrated As-Sab bin Jaththama: The Prophet passed by me at a place called Al-Abwa or Waddan, and was asked whether it was permissible to attack the pagan warriors at night with the probability of exposing their women and children to danger. The Prophet replied, “They (i.e. women and children) are from them (i.e. pagans).” I also heard the Prophet saying, “The institution of Hima [protected/inviolate in Arabic] is invalid except for Allah and His Apostle.” This Hadith clearly shows that Muhammad did not spare the women and children of the infidels. This is a significant Hadith that is never brought up by the Muslim apologists.
(5) Raid on a Rich Meccan Caravan at Bawat by Muhammad-October, 623CE
A month after his raid at al-Abwa, Muhammad personally led two hundred men including some citizens of Medina to Bawat, a place on the caravan route of the Quraysh merchants, where a herd of fifteen hundred (1,500) to two thousand-five hundred (2,500) camels, accompanied by one hundred (100) riders, under the leadership of Umayyah ibn Khalaf, a Quraysh was proceeding. The purpose of this raid obviously, was the plunder of this exceedingly rich Quraysh caravan. No battle took place and the raid resulted in no booty. Muhammad went up to Dhat al-Saq, in the desert of al-Khabar. He prayed there and a mosque was built at the spot. This was the first raid where a few al-Usharayh Ansars participated with the prospect of  pillage.
(6) Raid on a Meccan Caravan at al-Ushayrah, in the district of Yanbu by Muhammad-November, 623CE
This was Muhammad’s third personal raid. Between one hundred-fifty and two hundred (note the increasing number of Jihadists joining in the robbery) followers joined this terror operation. They had thirty camels that they rode upon by turns. When they arrived at al-Usharayh in the direction of Yanbo, they expected to waylay upon a rich Meccan caravan towards Syria led by Abu Sufyan. Muhammad already had the intelligence report of this caravan’s departure from Mecca. He waited for a month for this caravan to pass. Unfortunately, it was too late; for, when Muhammad reached the intended spot of plunder, the Meccan caravan had already passed. The readers should keep in mind of this raid, as this was the same caravan that gave rise to the famous action at Badr (Badr II) during its return journey. In this operation, Muhammad entered into an alliance with Bani Mudlij, a tribe inhabiting the vicinity of al-Usharayh. He also concluded another treaty with Bani Damra. All those treaties established good political connections for him.
(7) Raid on Muhammad’s Milch Camels at Badr (Badr I) by Kurz ibn Jabir al-Fihri-December, 623CEthe first retaliatory raid from an ally of the Meccans
After those six unprovoked and hostile attacks on the Quraysh caravans, the Quraysh decided to retaliate and send a strong message to Muhammad that his highway robbery would not be tolerated. With this end in view, Kurz ibn Jabir al-Fihri, ally of the Quarysh raided the vicinity of Medina where Muhammad’s milch camels were pasturing. This was conducted ten days after Muhammad returned to Medina from his unsuccessful plundering attempt at the Quraysh caravan at al-Usharayh. Having heard of this attack, Muhammad swiftly went out looking for Kurz until he reached the Safwa valley, close to Badr. This was the first raid at Badr or Badr I. Kurz escaped the capture; Muhammad returned to Medina and stayed there for the next three months. It is said that later, Muhammad caught Kurz and he (Kurz) converted to Islam.
(8) Raid on Meccan Caravan at Nakhla by Abd Allah ibn Jahsh, the First Successful Plunder-December, 623CE
After his return from the first Badr encounter, Muhammad sent Abd Allah b. Jahsh in Rajab with eight emigrants and without any Ansar for another terror operation. Abd Allah b. Jahsh was a maternal cousin of Muhammad. The participants in this plunder were: 1. Abu Haudhayfa 2. Abd Allah b Jahsh 3. Ukkash b. Mihsan 4. Utba b. Ghazwan 5. Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas 6. Amir b.Rabia 7. Waqid b. Abd Allah and 8. Khalid b. al-Bukayr. Some historians say that there were between seven to twelve partakers in this raiding/plundering party of the Muslims. It will be useful to remember the names of these very first Islam’s terrorists, as we shall witness, later, that their names crop up in many other terror operations.

Muhammad gave Abd Allah b. Jahsh a letter, but not to be read until he had travelled for two days and then to do what he was instructed to do in the letter without putting pressure on his companions. Abd Allah proceeded for two days, then he opened the letter; it told him to proceed until he reached at Nakhla, between Mecca and Taif; lie in wait for the Quraysh and observe what they were doing. Abd Allah b. Jahsh told his companions that whoever chose martyrdom (read terrorism) was free to join him and whoever did not could go back. All the companions agreed to follow him (a few biographers write that two Muslims decided not to be martyrs and chose to return to Medina). Sad b. Abi Waqqas and Utbah b. Ghazwan lost a camel that they were taking turns to ride. The camel strayed and went to Buhran. So, they went out looking for the runaway camel to Buhran and fell behind the raiding party.
As instructed by the Prophet, Abd Allah and the rest of the party then proceeded, and soon they arrived at Nakhla. Nakhla was a valley to the east of Mecca, about halfway to Taif. It was the usual route to Syria for the Meccan caravans. Muhammad had the secret information that a rich Meccan caravan, lightly guarded, laden with dry raisin, wine leather and other goods was soon to pass by the route.

Four Quraysh men guarded this donkey caravan – Amr b. al-Hadrami the leader of the caravan, Uthman b. Abd Allah b. al-Mughirah, Nawfal b. Abd Allah b. al-Mughirah, Uthman’s brother, Al-Hakam b. Kaysan, the freed slave (Mawla)of Hisham b. al-Mughirah. Soon, the Meccan caravan arrived at Nakhla guarded by the four Quraysh men. When they saw the Muslims, they were afraid of them. One of Abd Allah b. Jahsh’s men, Ukkash b Mihsan, was shaven in head to hide the real purpose of their journey and to give the Quraysh the impression of lesser Hajj (Umra); for, it was the month (Rajab) when hostilities were forbidden. When the Quraysh saw the shaven head of Ukkash, they thought that the Muslims were on their way for pilgrimage and they felt relieved and safe and started to prepare food for themselves. That was how the first band of Muslim Jihadists deceived their prey. Due to the prevalence of a sacred month, either at the beginning of Rajab or at the end of it (the opinion among the historians vary), Rajab being one of the four sacred months when there was a total ban on warfare and bloodshed in the Arabian Peninsula, Abd Allah b. Jahsh was, at first, hesitant to attack the caravan. Nevertheless, after much deliberation, the Muslims did not want this rich caravan to escape their hand. So, they decided to kill as many Quraysh as they could and take a large booty. They attacked the Quraysh while they (the Quraysh) were busy preparing their food. In the short battle that ensued, Waqid b. Abd Allah killed Amr b. Hadrami, the leader of the Quraysh caravan. NawfalAbd Allah escaped. The Muslims took Uthman b. Abd Allah and al-Hakam b. Kaysan as prisoners. b.

.Abd Allah b. Jahsh returned to Medina with the booty and with the two captured Quraysh men. He had already decided to give one-fifth of the booty to Muhammad, and divide the rest among them. The prevailing share of the leader of a plundering party at that time was one quarter of the booty. It is not clear why Abd Allah b. Jahsh decided on one-fifth booty, as Allah did not yet decide the provision of ‘Khums’ (leader’s commission on booty of plunder/theft) for Muhammad in verse 8:41. This verse was released after the Badr war, which took place after the plunder at Nakhla.

008.041 And know that out of all the booty that ye may acquire (in war), a fifth share is assigned to Allah,- and to the Messenger, and to near relatives, orphans, the needy, and the wayfarer,- if ye do believe in Allah and in the revelation We sent down to Our servant on the Day of Testing,- the Day of the meeting of the two forces. For Allah hath power over all things”.

Since this bloodshed took place during a sacred month, Muhammad was quite unwilling to start an un-ending cycle of revenge killings. The Quraysh also spread everywhere the news of the raid and the killing by Muhammad in the sacred month. Therefore, he rebuked them (the Muslims) for fighting in the sacred month and refused to take any share from the booty. Then verse 2:217 regarding fighting in the sacred month was revealed.

002.217 They ask thee concerning fighting in the Prohibited Month. Say: “Fighting therein is a grave (offence); but graver is it in the sight of Allah to prevent access to the path of Allah, to deny Him, to prevent access to the Sacred Mosque, and drive out its members. Tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter. Nor will they cease fighting you until they turn you back from your faith if they can. And if any of you Turn back from their faith and die in unbelief, their works will bear no fruit in this life and in the Hereafter; they will be companions of the Fire and will abide therein.”

This revelation permitted Muhammad to conduct war during the sacred months. Then Abd Allah b. Jahsh divided the booty, one-fifth going to Muhammad. He also decided to make more money by asking ransom for the two captives. However, Muhammad refused to accept the ransoms from the Quraysh until the two of his men, Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas and Utbah b. Ghazwan returned from searching the straying camel. He was afraid that the Quraysh might kill them if they found them. When Sa’d and Utbah returned unharmed, Muhammad released the two Quraysh prisoners on payment of their ransom of one thousand six hundred (1,600) Dirhams (one Dirham = 1/10 Dinar; one Dinar 4.235 gm of gold) per head. It is reported that, soon after his release, Hakam b. Kaysan became a Muslim, probably after witnessing the profitability of Islam. Later, he was killed at the battle of Bir Mauna. The other prisoner, Uthman b. Abd Allah returned to Mecca and died as an unbeliever.

The Islamic name of this first successful plunder is ‘Nakhla Raid.’ It was also the first raid on which the Muslims seized the first captive, and the first life they took. Rightfully, Abd Allah was called the Amir al-Mominun, that is, the commander of the faithful. After the success of Nakhla raid, Muhammad felt militarily strong to formally legalize and legitimize plunder. This successful raid on the Quraysh caravans fully alarmed the Meccans, because their prosperity completely depended upon the regular and uninterrupted trade to Syria. The trading with Abyssinia and Yemen was of lesser importance. Even the trading caravan towards Abyssinia and Yemen did not look safe from the marauding army of Muhammad. The Nakhla attack also greatly unnerved the Meccans. They now believed that Muhammad had very little respect for life and absolutely no concern for the sanctity of the sacred months. So, the Meccans resolved to avenge the bloodshed. However, the Quraysh restrained their hostility. Muhammad still had a few of his followers residing at Mecca, including his own daughter, Zaynab. The Quraysh did not take any revenge on the remaining followers of Muhammad (including Muhammad’s daughter) at Mecca neither did they make any attempt to harass his beloved daughter, Zaynab. Muhammad, after the success at Nakhla, contemplated a more severe and mortal attack on the Quraysh. Allah now gave him the permission to fight the unbelievers in verses 22:39-42, 2:190-194. As well, the raid at Nakhla was justified by the ‘expulsion’ of the believers from Mecca. However, the true reason was “until the religion became God’s alone”. That meant, until all the Meccans (or the world) accepted Islam.

022.039 To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged;- and verily, Allah is most powerful for their aid;-
022.040 (They are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right,- (for no cause) except that they say, “our Lord is Allah”. Did not Allah check one set of people by means of another, there would surely have been pulled down monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, in which the name of Allah is commemorated in abundant measure. Allah will certainly aid those who aid his (cause);- for verily Allah is full of Strength, Exalted in Might, (able to enforce His Will).
022.041 (They are) those who, if We establish them in the land, establish regular prayer and give regular charity, enjoin the right and forbid wrong: with Allah rests the end (and decision) of (all) affairs.
022.042 If they treat thy (mission) as false, so did the peoples before them (with their Prophets),- the People of Noah, and ‘Ad and Thamud;

002.190 Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loveth not transgressors.
002.191 And slay them wherever ye catch them, and turn them out from where they have Turned you out; for tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter; but fight them not at the Sacred Mosque, unless they (first) fight you there; but if they fight you, slay them. Such is the reward of those who suppress faith.
002.192 But if they cease, Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
002.193 And fight them on until there is no more Tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in Allah; but if they cease, Let there be no hostility except to those who practise oppression.
002.194 The prohibited month for the prohibited month,- and so for all things prohibited,- there is the law of equality. If then any one transgresses the prohibition against you, Transgress ye likewise against him. But fear Allah, and know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves.

Those who were reluctant to join in the war of plunder were reproved. Allah’s revelation on this came down in verses 47:20-21. These verses granted paradise to those who fight (or terrorize and plunder) for Islam i.e., Jihad and are killed.

047.020 Those who believe say, “Why is not a sura sent down (for us)?” But when a sura of basic or categorical meaning is revealed, and fighting is mentioned therein, thou wilt see those in whose hearts is a disease looking at thee with a look of one in swoon at the approach of death. But more fitting for them-
047.021 Were it to obey and say what is just, and when a matter is resolved on, it were best for them if they were true to Allah.

Allah then asked the Jihadis to “strike off the heads of the unbelievers; to make a great slaughter and bind them fast in bonds” in verse 47:3-4

047.003 This because those who reject Allah follow vanities, while those who believe follow the Truth from their Lord: Thus does Allah set forth for men their lessons by similitudes.
047.004 Therefore, when ye meet the Unbelievers (in fight), smite at their necks; At length, when ye have thoroughly subdued them, bind a bond firmly (on them): thereafter (is the time for) either generosity or ransom: Until the war lays down its burdens. Thus (are ye commanded): but if it had been Allah’s Will, He could certainly have exacted retribution from them (Himself); but (He lets you fight) in order to test you, some with others. But those who are slain in the Way of Allah,- He will never let their deeds be lost.

Furthermore, the true believers were expected not only to fight but also to contribute materially towards the cost of war (4:66-67, 9:88, 9:111), to kill and be killed. Those who did this were promised a higher rank in paradise (4:74, 4:95). The believers were asked to prepare with whatever force in their ability, troops, horses, etc. to strike terror into the hearts of the unbelievers.

004.066 If We had ordered them to sacrifice their lives or to leave their homes, very few of them would have done it: But if they had done what they were (actually) told, it would have been best for them, and would have gone farthest to strengthen their (faith);
004.067 And We should then have given them from our presence a great reward;

009.088 But the Messenger, and those who believe with him, strive and fight with their wealth and their persons: for them are (all) good things: and it is they who will prosper.
009.111 Allah hath purchased of the believers their persons and their goods; for theirs (in return) is the garden (of Paradise): they fight in His cause, and slay and are slain: a promise binding on Him in truth, through the Law, the Gospel, and the Quran: and who is more faithful to his covenant than Allah? then rejoice in the bargain which ye have concluded: that is the achievement supreme.

004.074 Let those fight in the cause of Allah Who sell the life of this world for the hereafter. To him who fighteth in the cause of Allah,- whether he is slain or gets victory – Soon shall We give him a reward of great (value).
004.095 Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and receive no hurt, and those who strive and fight in the cause of Allah with their goods and their persons. Allah hath granted a grade higher to those who strive and fight with their goods and persons than to those who sit (at home). Unto all (in Faith) Hath Allah promised good: But those who strive and fight Hath He distinguished above those who sit (at home) by a special reward,-

009.073 O Prophet! strive hard against the unbelievers and the Hypocrites, and be firm against them. Their abode is Hell,- an evil refuge indeed.
009.123 O ye who believe! fight the unbelievers who gird you about, and let them find firmness in you: and know that Allah is with those who fear Him.
008.060 Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies, of Allah and your enemies, and others besides, whom ye may not know, but whom Allah doth know. Whatever ye shall spend in the cause of Allah, shall be repaid unto you, and ye shall not be treated unjustly.

These messages were promulgated within two or three years after Muhammad’s arrival at Medina. This promulgation was not only for the refugees (Muhajirs) but also to all the men of Medina. This is the history and context of the “rightful war” being referred to by Muslim apologists.

To be continued….

Part 1 : LIE 1 AND 2

part 3: LIE 4

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