How Islam came to India and why now it needs to go – 6 – cultural destruction of non-Muslims

Posted on August 24, 2008. Filed under: Hindu, India, Islam, Muslims, Politics, religion |

Continuing with the Islamic chronicler’s claims of the destruction of the cultural icons of non-Muslims : if not true as claimed by the Thaparite School of Indian History, it then raises the obvious question as why all these opium or other drug-fuelled feverish narratives allways seem to find destruction of cultural icons of non-Muslims such an integral and glorifying aspect of Islam.

(12) Asarul-Bilad : The author, Zakariya bin Muhammad, was born in the town of Kazwin in Iran and became known as al-Kazwini. His work is a compilation from the writings of travellers like Istakhri and Ibn Hauqal. It was written between CE 1263 and 1275.

Sultan Muhmud of Ghazni (CE 997-1030)
Somnath (Gujarat)
“Somnat-A celebrated city of India, is situated on the shores of the sea, and washed by its waves. Among the wonders of that place was the temple in which was placed the idol called Somnat… When the Sultan Yaminuddaula Mahmud bin Subuktigin went to wage religious war against India, he made great efforts to capture and destroy Somnat, in the hope that Hindus would become Muhammadans. He arrived there in the middle of Zil Kada AH 416 (December CE 1025). The Indians made a desperate resistance… The number of slain exceeded 50,000…”

Muhammad bin Qasim (CE 712-715)
Multan (Punjab)
“Muhammad Kasim, ascertaining that large offerings were made to the idol, and wishing to add to his resources by those means, left it uninjured, but in order to show his horror of Indian superstition, he attached a piece of cow’s flesh to its neck, by which he was able to gratify his avarice and malignity at the same time.”

(13) Nizamut-Tawarikh The author, Abu Said Abdullah bin Abul Hasan Ali Baizawi, was born at Baiza, a town near Shiraz in Iran. He became a Qazi, first at Shiraz and then at Tabriz, where he died in CE 1286. His history starts from the earliest period and comes down to the Mongol invasions.

Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (CE 997-1030) “Nasiru-d din [Subuktigin] died in the year AH 387 (CE 997) and the command of his troops descended to Mahmud by inheritance, and by confirmation of Nuh, son of Mansur… He demolished the Hindu temples and gave prevalence to the Muhammadan faith…”

(14) Miftahul-Futuh : The author, Amir Khusru, was born at Delhi in 1253. His father occupied high positions in the reigns of Sultan Shamsud-Din Iltutmish (CE 1210-1236) and his successors. His mother was the daughter of another dignitary under Sultan Ghiyasud-Din Balban (CE 1266-1286). He himself became a companion of Balban’s son, Prince Muhammad, and stayed at Multan till the prince was killed in a battle with the Mongols. Reputed to be the dearest disciple of Shykh Nizamud-Din Auliya‘, he became the lick-spittle of whoever came out victorious in the contest for the throne at Delhi. He became a court poet of Balban’s successor, Sultan Kaiqubad (CE 1288-1290) and wrote his Qiranus Sadain in the Sultan’s praise in CE 1289. Next, he joined Sultan Jalalud-Din Khalji (CE 1290-1296) as a court poet after the latter murdered Kaiqubad. He wrote in 1291 the Miftahul-Futuh which describes Jalalud-Din’s victories.

Sultan Jalalud -Din Khalji (CE 1290-1296)
Jhain (Rajasthan)
“The Sultan reached Jhain in the afternoon of the third day and stayed in the palace of the Raya… He greatly enjoyed his stay for some time. Coming out, he took a round of the gardens and temples. The idols he saw amazed him… Next day he got those idols of gold smashed with stones. The pillars of wood were burnt down by his order…Two idols were made of brass, one of which weighed nearly a thousand mans. He got both of them broken, and the pieces were distributed among his people so that they may throw them at the door of the Masjid on their return [to Delhi]…”

Another version of the same text is available in the translation by Elliot and Dowson:

“Three days after this, the king entered Jhain at midday and occupied the private apartment of the rai… He then visited the temples, which were ornamented with elaborate work in gold and silver. Next day he went again to the temples, and ordered their destruction, as well as of the fort, and set fire to the palace, and ‘thus made hell of paradise’… While the soldiers sought every opportunity of plundering, the Shah was engaged in burning the temples, and destroying the idols. There were two bronze idols of Brahma each of which weighed more than a thousand mans. These were broken into pieces and the fragments distributed amongst the officers, with orders to throw them down at the gates of the Masjid on their return.”

Sultan Alaud-Din Khalji (CE 1296-1316)

Vidisha (Madhya Pradesh) “When he advanced from the capital of Karra, the Hindus, in alarm, descended into the earth like ants. He departed towards the garden of Behar to dye that soil with blood as red as tulip. He cleared the road to Ujjain of vile wretches, and created consternation in Bhilsan. When he effected his conquests in that country, he drew out of the river the idols which had been concealed in it.”

(15) Khazainul-Futuh another work by Amir Khusru who wrote it in praise of Alaud-Din Khalji when the latter became the Sultan after murdering his uncle and father-in-law, Sultan Jalalud-Din Khalji. Khusru was among the foremost notables who welcomed Alaud-Din when the latter reached Delhi with the head of the late king held aloft on the point of a spear. He completed this history in CE 1311. It is famous for its flowery language and figures of speech.

Sultan Alaud-Din Khalji (CE 1296-1316)
Delhi “
He started his building programme with the Jami Hazrat mosque… Thereafter he decided to build a second minar opposite to the lofty minar of the Jami Masjid, which minar is unparalleled in the world… He ordered the circumference of the new minar to be double that of the old one. People were sent out in all directions in search of stones…Some others proved sharper than steel in breaking the temples of the infidels. Wherever these temples were bent in prayers, they were made to do prostration.”

Somnath (Gujarat) “On Wednesday, the 20th of Jamadi-ul Awwal in AH 698 (23 February, 1299), the Sultan sent an order to the manager of the armed forces for despatching the army of Islam to Gujarat so that the temple of Somnat on its shore could be destroyed…When the royal army reached that province, it won a victory after great slaughter. Thereafter the Khan-i-azam went with his army to the sea-shore and besieged Somnat which was a place of worship for the Hindus. The army of Islam broke the idols and the biggest idol was sent to the court of the Sultan.”

Professor Mohammed Habib’s translation provides a fuller version. It reads: “So the temple of Somnath was made to bow towards the Holy Mecca; and as the temple lowered its head and jumped into the sea, you may say that the building first said its prayers and then had a bath… It seemed as if the tongue of the Imperial sword explained the meaning of the text: ‘So he (Abraham) broke them (the idols) into pieces except the chief of them, that haply they may return to it.’ Such a pagan country, the Mecca of the infidels, now became the Medina of Islam. The followers of Abraham now acted as guides in place of the Brahman leaders. The robust-hearted true believers rigorously broke all idols and temples wherever they found them. Owing to the war, ‘takbir,’ and ‘shahadat’ was heard on every side; even the idols by their breaking affirmed the existence of God. In this ancient land of infidelity the call to prayers rose so high that it was heard in Baghdad and Madain (Ctesiphon) while the ‘Ala’ proclamation (Khutba) resounded in the dome of Abraham and over the water of Zamzam… The sword of Islam purified the land as the Sun purifies the earth.”

Jhain (Rajasthan) “On Tuesday, the 3rd of Ziqad in AH 700 (10 July, 1301), the strong fort [of Ranthambhor] was conquered. Jhain which was the abode of the infidels, became a new city for Musalmans. The temple of Bahirdev was the first to be destroyed. Subsequently, all other abodes of idolatry were destroyed. Many strong temples which would have remained unshaken even by the trumpet blown on the Day of Judgment, were levelled with the ground when swept by the wind of Islam.”

Warangal (Andhra Pradesh) “…the tents around the fort were pitched together so closely that the head of a needle could not go between them… Orders were issued that every man should erect behind his own tent a kathgar, that is wooden defence. The trees were cut with axes and felled, notwithstanding their groans; and the Hindus, who worship trees, could not at that time come to the rescue of their idols, so that every cursed tree which was in that capital of idolatry was cut down to the roots…“During the attack, the catapults were busily plied on both sides… ‘Praise be to God for his exaltation of the religion of Muhammad. It is not to be doubted that stones are worshipped by Gabrs, but as the stones did no service to them, they only bore to heaven the futility of that worship, and at the same time prostrated their devotees upon earth’

Deccan and South India “The tongue of the sword of the Khalifa of the time, which is the tongue of the flame of Islam, has imparted light to the entire darkness of Hindustan by the illumination of its guidance… and on the right hand and on the left hand the army has conquered from sea to sea, and several capitals of the gods of the Hindus in which Satanism had prevailed since the time of the Jinns, have been demolished. All these impurities of infidelity have been cleansed by the Sultan’s destruction of idol temples, beginning with his first expedition against Deogir, so that the flames of the light of the law illumine all these unholy countries, and places for the criers to prayers are exalted on high, and prayers are read in mosques. God be praised!”

Chidambaram (Tamil Nadu) “After returning to Birdhul, he again pursued the Raja to Kandur… The Rai again escaped him, and he ordered a general massacre at Kandur. It was then ascertained that he had fled to Jalkota… There the Malik closely pursued him, but he had again escaped to the jungles, which the Malik found himself unable to penetrate, and he therefore returned to Kandur… Here he heard that in Brahmastpuri there was a golden idol, round which many elephants wore stabled. The Malik started on a night expedition against this place, and in the morning seized no less then two hundred and fifty elephants. He then determined on razing the beautiful temple to the ground – ‘you might say that it was the Paradise of Shaddad which, after being lost, those hellites had found, and that it was the golden Lanka of Ram,’ – ‘the roof was covered with rubies and emeralds’, – ‘in short, it was the holy place of the Hindus, which the Malik dug up from its foundations with the greatest care… and heads of the Brahmans and idolaters danced from their necks and fell to the ground at their feet,’ and blood flowed in torrents. ‘The stone idol called Ling Mahadeo which had been a long time established at that place and on which the women of the infidels rubbed their vaginas for [sexual] satisfaction, these, up to this time, the kick of the horse of Islam had not attempted to break.’[The sexual fantasy of the “imaginative” Muslim mind takes a leap here – typical sizes of the “Lingams” could only be accommodated by female elephants perhaps] The Musalmans destroyed all the lings, ‘and Deo Narain fell down,… Much gold and valuable jewels fell into the hands of the Musalmans, who returned to the royal canopy, after executing their holy project, on the 13th of Zi-l Kada, AH 710 (April 1311 CE). They destroyed an the temples at Birdhul, and placed the plunder in the public treasury.”

Madura (Tamil Nadu) “.. they arrived at the city of Mathra (Madura), the dwelling place of the brother of the Rai Sundar Pandya. They found the city empty, for the Rai had fled with the Ranis, but had left two or three elephants in the temple of Jagnar (Jagganath). The elephants were captured and the temple burnt.”

(16) Dawal Rani-Khizr Khani: Amir Khusru wrote this epic in CE 1315. It is popularly known as ashiqa, love-story. Its main theme is the so-called “love” between Dawal Rani, the captured daughter of the last Hindu King of Gujarat, and Khizr Khan, the eldest son of Alaud-Din Khalji. It also describes Muslim history in India upto the reign of Alaud-Din Khalji, including Malik Kafur’s expedition to South India in CE 1310.

Sultan Alaud-Din Khalji (CE 1296-1316)
Pattan (Tamil Nadu)
“There was another rai in those parts, whose rule extended over sea and land, a Brahmin named Pandya Guru. He had many cities in his possession, and his capital was Fatan, where there was a temple with an idol in it laden with jewels… The rai, when the army of the Sultan arrived at Fatan, fled away, and what can an army do without its leader? The Musalmans in his service sought protection from the king’s army, and they were made happy with the kind of reception they met. [this is a possible fallout of employing Muslims in an army created to defend non-Muslims] 500 elephants were taken. They then struck the idol with an iron hatchet, and opened its head. Although it was the very Kibla of the accursed gabrs, it kissed the earth and filled the holy treasury.”

(17) Nuh Siphir is the fourth historical mathnavi which Amir Khusru wrote when he was 67 years old. It celebrates the reign of Sultan Mubarak Shah Khalji. It consists of nine(nuh) siphirs (parts). In Siphir III, he says that the Hindus “worship…stones, beasts, plants and the sun, but they recognize that these things are creations of God and adore them simply because their forefathers did so.”

Sultan Mubarak Shah Khalji (CE 1316-1320)
Warrangal (Andhra Pradesh)
“They pursued the enemy to the gates and set everything on fire. They burnt down all those gardens and groves. That paradise of idol-worshippers became like hell. The fire-worshippers of Bud were in alarm and flocked round their idols…”

(18) Siyarul-Auliya was written by Sayyid Muhammad bin Mubarak bin Muhammad Alwi Kirmani known as Amir or Mir Khwurd. He was the grandson of an Iranian merchant who traded between Kirman in Iran and Lahore, and who became a disciple of Shykh Faridud-Din Ganj-i-Shakar, the Sufi luminary of Ajodhan near Multan. His father was also a disciple of the same Sufi. The family travelled to Delhi after Shykh Farid’s death and became devoted to Shykh Nizamud-Din Auliya. Mir Khwurd was forced to migrate to Daulatabad by Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq but allowed to return to Delhi after some time. It was then that he wrote this detailed biography of the Auliya and his disciples.

Sheikh Muin al-Din Chisti of Ajmer (d. CE 1236)
Ajmer (Rajasthan)
“The other miracle is that before his arrival the whole of Hindustan was submerged by unbelief and idol-worship. Every haughty man in Hind pronounced himself to be Almighty God and considered himself as the partner of God. [with typical high intelligence of the Muslim bigot, this is the interpretation of the Advaita or Vedantic philosophies] All the people of India used to prostrate themselves before stones, idols, trees, animals, cows and cow-dung. Because of the darkness of unbelief over this land their hearts were locked and hardened. “All India was ignorant of orders of religion and law. All were ignorant of Allah and His Prophet. None had seen the Kaba. None had heard of the Greatness of Allah. “Because of his coming, the, Sun of real believers, the helper of religion, Muin al-din, the darkness of unbelief in this land was illumined by the light of Islam. “Because of his Sword, instead of idols and temples in the land of unbelief now there are mosques, mihrab and mimbar. In the land where there were the sayings of the idol-worshippers, there is the sound of ‘Allahu Akbar’. “The descendants of those who were converted to Islam in this land will live until the Day of Judgement; so too will those who bring others into the fold of Islam by the sword of Islam. [ note the unhesitating declaration of Sufis being associated with conversion by the sword].”

(19) Tarikh-i-Wassaf : The author, Abdullah ibn Fazlullah of Shiraz, is known by his literary name which was Wassaf, the panegyrist. The history he wrote is titled Tazjiyatul Amsar Wa Tajriyatul asar. But it is popularly known as Tarikh-i-Wassaf. The first four volumes of the work were published in CE 1300. Later on, the author added a fifth volume, bringing the history down to CE 1328. The work was dedicated to Sultan Uljaitu, the Mongol ruler of Iran.

Sultan Alaud-Din Khalji (CE 1296-1316)
Somnath (Gujarat) “
…In short, the Muhammadan army brought the country to utter ruin, and destroyed the lives of the inhabitants, and plundered the cities, and captured their offspring, so that many temples were deserted and the idols were broken and trodden under foot, the largest of which was one called Somnat, fixed upon stone, polished like a mirror of charming shape and admirable workmanship… Its head was adorned with a crown set with gold and rubies and pearls and other precious stones… and a necklace of large shining pearls, like the belt of Orion, depended from the shoulder towards the side of the body. The Muhammadan soldiers plundered all these jewels and rapidly set themselves to demolish the idol. The surviving infidels were deeply affected with grief, and they engaged ‘to pay a thousand pieces of gold’ as ransom for the idol, but they were indignantly rejected, and the idol was destroyed, and ‘its limbs, which were anointed with ambergris and perfumed, were cut off. The fragments were conveyed to Delhi, and the entrance of the Jami Masjid was paved with them, that people might remember and talk of this brilliant victory.’ Praise be to God, the Lord of the worlds. Amin!”

(20) Tarikh-i-Guzida : The author, Hamdullah bin Abu Bakr bin Hamd bin Nasr Mustaufi of Kazwin in Iran, composed this work in CE 1329. He was secretary to Ghiyasud-Din as well as his father Rashiduddin, the ministers of Sultan Uljaitu.

Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (CE 997-1030)
Nagarkot Kangra (Himachal Pradesh)
“…He now attacked the fort of Bhim, where was a temple of the Hindus. He was victorious, and obtained much wealth, including about a hundred idols of gold and silver. One of the golden images, which weighed a million mishkals, the Sultan appropriated to the decoration of the Mosque of Ghazni, so that the ornaments of the doors were of gold instead of iron.”

(21) Masalikul Absar fi Mamalikul Amsar : The author, Shihabud-Din Abul Abbas Ahmad bin Yahya bin Fazlullah al-Umri, was born in CE 1301. He was educated at Damascus and Cairo. He is considered to be a great scholar of his time and author of many books. He occupied high positions in Syria and Egypt. This book of his is a large collection of history, geography and biographies. He himself never visited India about which he based his account on sources available to him. He died at Damascus in CE 1348.

Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq (CE 1325-1351) “The Sultan is not slack in jihad. He never lets go of his spear or bridle in pursuing jihad by land and sea routes. This is his main occupation which engages his eyes and ears. He has spent vast sums for the establishment of the faith and the spread of Islam in these lands, as a result of which the light of Islam has reached the inhabitants and the flash of the true faith brightened among them. Fire temples85 have been destroyed and the images and idols of Budd have been broken, and the lands have been freed from those who were not included in the darul Islam, that is, those who had refused to become zimmis. Islam has been spread by him in the far east and has reached the point of sunrise. In the words of Abu Nasr al-aini, he has carried the flags of the followers of Islam where they had never reached before and where no chapter or verse (of the Quran) had ever been recited. Thereafter he got mosques and places of worship erected, and music replaced by call to prayers (azan), and the incantations of fire-worshippers stopped by recitations of the Quran. He directed the people of Islam towards the citadels of the infidels and, by the grace of Allah, made them (the believers) inheritors of wealth and land and that country which they (the believers) had never trodden upon…He has achieved victory, supremacy, conquest of countries, destruction of the forts of the infidels, and exposure of magicians. He has destroyed idols by which the people of Hindustan were deceived in vain…”

(22) Futuhus-Salatin : The author whose full name is not known is famous by his surname of Isami. His forefathers had served the Sultans of Delhi since the days of Shamsud-Din Iltutmish (CE 1210-1236). He was born in CE 1311-12 and lived at Daulatabad (Devagiri) till 1351 when he finished this work at the age of forty. It covers the period from Mahamud of Ghazni (CE 997-1030) to Muhammad bin Tughlaq (CE 1325-1351).

Sultan Alaud-Din Khalji (CE 1296-1316)
Devagiri (Maharashtra)
“Malik Naib [Kafur] reached there expeditiously and occupied the fort… He built mosques in places occupied by temples.”

(23) Rehala of Ibn Battuta : The full name of this book is Tuhfatun-nuzzar fi Gharaibul-amsar wa Ajaibul-afsar. The author was Sheikh Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Lawati at-Tanji al- Maruf be Ibn Battuta. He belonged to an Arab family which was settled in Spain since CE 1312. His grandfather and father enjoyed the reputation of scholars and theologians. He himself was a great scholar who travelled extensively and over many lands. He came to India in 1325 and visited many places – east, west, north and south – till he left in 1346. India during this period was ruled by Muhammad bin Tughlaq with whom Ibn Battuta came in close contact. He openly declares his extreme fondness for bedding Hindu girls from different parts of India. They were presented to him by the Sultan and other Muslim dignitaries during his sojourn in various places. He also married Muslim women wherever he stayed, and divorced them before his departure. He finished his book in 1355 after reaching Fez in Morocco where his family lived after migration from Spain.

Delhi “Near the eastern gate of the mosque lie two very big idols of copper connected together by stones. Every one who comes in and goes out of the mosque treads over them. On the site of this mosque was a bud khana that is an idol-house. After the conquest of Delhi it was turned into a mosque…”

Maldive Islands “Reliable men among the inhabitants of the islands, like the jurist (faqih) and teacher (muallim) Ali, the judge Abdullah – and others besides them – told me that the inhabitants of these islands were infidels… Subsequently a westerner named Abul Barakat the Berbar who knew the great Quran came to them… He stayed amongst them and God opened the heart of the king to Islam and he accepted it before the end of the month; and his wives, children and courtiers followed suit… They broke to pieces the idols and razed the idol-house to the ground. On this the islanders embraced Islam and sent missionaries to the rest of the islands, the inhabitants of which also became Muslims. The westerner stood in high regard with them, and they accepted his cult which was that of Imam Malik….”[These religious ecstasy claims have to be analyzed in the background of dependence of island societies on trade relations with the Muslim world which had taken over the Asian trade routes. We also do not have any independent non-Muslim version of the events as to how much of the conversion stemmed from immigration etc.]

(24) Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi : The author, Ziaud-Din Barani was born in AH 684 (CE 1285-86) at Baran, now known as Bulandshahar, in Uttar Pradesh. His ancestors, paternal as well as maternal, had occupied important positions in the reigns of Sultan Ghiyasud-Din Balban (CE 1266-1286) and the Khaljis. His uncle was a confidant of Alaud-Din Khalji (CE 1296-1316). Barani became a friend of Amir Khusru and a disciple of Nizamud-Din Auliya, the renowned Chishti saint of Delhi. His prosperity continued in the reign of Sultan Ghiyasud-Din Tughlaq (CE 1320-1325) and he became a favourite of Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq (CE 1325-1351). He completed this history in CE 1357. It covers a period of 82 years, from CE 1265 onwards. He wrote several other books among which Fatwa-i-Jahandari is famous for its tenets regarding how an Islamic state should be run. Barani’s ideal ruler was Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. He exhorted Muslim rulers to follow Mahmud’s example in their treatment of Hindus, for whom he often uses very foul language.

Sultan Jalalud-Din Khalji (CE 1290-1296)
Jhain (Rajasthan) “In the year AH 689 (CE 1290), the Sultan led an army to Rantambhor… He took… Jhain, destroyed the idol temples, and broke and burned the idols…”

Vidisha (Madhya Pradesh) “ Alaud-din at this time held the territory of Karra, and with the permission of the Sultan he marched to Bhailsan (Bhilsa). He captured some bronze idols which the Hindus worshipped and sent them on carts with a variety of rich booty as presents to the Sultan. The idols were laid before the Badaun gate for true believers to tread upon…”

Sultan Alaud-Din Khalji (CE 1296-1316)
Somnath (Gujarat)
“At the beginning of the third year of the reign, Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan, with their amirs and generals, and a large army marched against Gujarat… All Gujarat became a prey to the invaders, and the idol, which after the victory of Sultan Mahmud and his destruction of (the idol) of Manat, the Brahmans had set up under the name of Somanat, for the worship of the Hindus, was carried to Delhi where it was laid for the people to tread upon…”

Mabar (Tamil Nadu) “……Malik Naib Kafur marched on to Mabar, which he also took. He destroyed the golden idol temple (but-khanah i-zarin) of Mabar, and the golden idols which for ages had been worshipped by the Hindus of that country. The fragments of the golden temple, and of the broken idols of gold and gilt became the rich spoil of the army…”

(25) Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi : The author, Shams Siraj Afif or Shamsud-Din bin Sirajud-Din, became a courtier of Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq and undertook to complete the aforementioned history of Barani who had stopped at the sixth year of Firuz Shahs reign.

Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq (CE 1351-1388)
Puri (Orissa)
“The Sultan left Banarasi with the intention of pursuing the Rai of Jajnagar, who had fled to an island in the river… the Sultan directed his attention to the Rai of Jajnagar, and entering the palace where he dwelt he found many fine buildings. It is reported that inside the Rai’s fort, there was a stone idol which the infidels called Jagannath, and to which they paid their devotions. Sultan Firoz, in emulation of Mahmud Subuktigin, having rooted up the idol, carried it away to Delhi where he placed it in an ignominious position…”

Nagarkot Kangra (Himachal Pradesh) “The idol, Jwalamukhi, much worshipped by the infidels, was situated on the road to Nagarkot… Some of the infidels have reported that Sultan Firoz went specially to see this idol and held a golden umbrella over it….The Sultan held the idol in the deepest detestation, but the infidels, in the blindness of their delusion, have made this false statement against him. Other infidels have said that Sultan Muhammad Shah bin Tughlik Shah held an umbrella over the same idol, but this is also a lie; and good Muhammadans should pay no heed to such statements. These two Sultans were sovereigns especially chosen by the Almighty from among the faithful, and in the whole course of their reigns, wherever they took an idol temple they broke and destroyed it; how, then, can such assertions be true? The infidels must certainly have lied!

DelhiA report was brought to the Sultan that there was in Delhi an old Brahman (zunar dar) who persisted in publicly performing the worship of idols in his house; and that people of the city, both Musulmans and Hindus, used to resort to his house to worship the idol. The Brahman had constructed a wooden tablet (muhrak), which was covered within and without with paintings of demons and other objects… An order was accordingly given that the Brahman, with his tablet, should be brought into the presence of the Sultan at Firozabad. The judges and doctors and elders and lawyers were summoned, and the case of the Brahman was submitted for their opinion. Their reply was that the provisions of the Law were clear: the Brahman must either become a Musulman or be burned. The true faith was declared to the Brahman, and the right course pointed out, but he refused to accept it. Orders were given for raising a pile of faggots before the door of the darbar. The Brahman was tied hand and foot and cast into it; the tablet was thrown on top and the pile was lighted. The writer of this book was present at the darbar and witnessed the execution. The tablet of the Brahman was lighted in two places, at his head and at his feet; the wood was dry, and the fire first reached his feet, and drew from him a cry, but the flames quickly enveloped his head and consumed him. Behold the Sultan’s strict adherence to law and rectitude, how he would not deviate in the least from its decrees!”[Another imaginary story by Thaparian logic – what faith makes its believer imagine such things in a daydream?]

(26) Insha-i-Mahru : The author, ainud-Din Abdullah bin Mahru, was a high official in the court of Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq. Insha-i-Mahru is a collection of 133 letters related to various events.

Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq (CE 1351-1388)
Jajnagar (Orissa)
“The victorious standards set out from Jaunpur for the destruction of idols, slaughter of the enemies of Islam and hunt for elephants near Padamtalav… The Sultan saw Jajnagar which had been praised by all travellers…The troops which had been appointed for the destruction of places around Jajnagar, ended the conceit of the infidels by means of the sword and the spear. Wherever there were temples and idols in that area, they were trampled under the hoofs of the horses of Musalmans…After obtaining victory and sailing on the sea and destroying the temple of Jagannath and slaughtering the idolaters, the victorious standards started towards Delhi…”

(27) Futuhat-i-Firuz Shahi : This small history was written by Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq (CE 1351-1388) himself. The writer of Tabqat-i-Akbari, Nizamud-Din Ahmad, a 16th century historian, says that the Sultan had got the eight chapters of his work inscribed on eight slabs of stone which were fixed on eight sides of the octagonal dome of a building near the Jami Masjid at Firuzabad.

Prayers for Temple-destroyers of the Past “The next matter which by God’s help I accomplished, was the repetition of names and titles of former sovereigns which had been omitted from the prayers of Sabbaths and Feasts. The names of those sovereigns of Islam, under whose happy fortune and favour infidel countries had been conquered, whose banners had waved over many a land, under whom idol-temples had been demolished, and mosques and pulpits built and exalted, the fragrant creed had been extended, and the people of Islam had waxen strong and warlike, the names of these men had fallen into neglect and oblivion. So I decreed that according to established custom their names and titles should be rehearsed in the khutba and aspirations offered for the remission of their sins.[Thats strange – Islam warlike! was he under the influence of opium?]

Delhi and Environs “The Hindus and idol-worshippers had agreed to pay the money for toleration (zar-i zimmiya) and had consented to the poll-tax (jizya) in return for which they and their families enjoyed security. These people now erected new idol-temples in the city and the environs in opposition to the Law of the Prophet which declares that such temples are not to be tolerated. Under divine guidance I destroyed these edifices and I killed those leaders of infidelity who seduced others into error, and the lower orders I subjected to stripes and chastisement, until this abuse was entirely abolished. The following is an instance:- In the village of Maluh there is a tank which they call kund (tank). Here they had built idol-temples and on certain days the Hindus were accustomed to proceed thither on horseback, and wearing arms. Their women and children also went out in palankins and carts. There they assembled in thousands and performed idol-worship… When intelligence of this came to my ears my religious feelings prompted me at once to put a stop to this scandal and offence to the religion of Islam. On the day of the assembly I went there in person and I ordered that the leaders of these people and the promoters of this abomination should be put to death. I forbade the infliction of any severe punishments on Hindus in general, but I destroyed their idol-temples, and instead thereof raised mosques. I founded two flourishing towns (kasba), one called Tughlikpur, the other Salarpur. Where infidels and idolaters worshipped idols, Musulmans now, by God’s mercy, perform their devotions to the true God. Praises of God and the summons to prayer are now heard there, and that place which was formerly the home of infidels has become the habitation of the faithful, who there repeat their creed and offer up their praises to God…Information was brought to me that some Hindus had erected a new idol temple in the village of Salihpur, and were performing worship to their idols. I sent some persons there to destroy the idol temple, and put a stop to their pernicious incitements to error.”[Thus even if non-Muslims pay money to the Muslims who are generally non-productive and primarily depend on looting, they still cannot continue in their own culture]

Gohana (Haryana) Some Hindus had erected a new idol-temple in the village of Kohana, and the idolaters used to assemble there and perform their idolatrous rites. These people were seized and brought before me. I ordered that the perverse conduct of the leaders of this wickedness should be publicly proclaimed, and that they should be put to death before the gate of the palace. I also ordered that the infidel books, the idols, and the vessels used in their worship, which had been taken with them, should all be publicly burnt. The others were restrained by threats and punishments, as a warning to all men, that no zimmi could follow such wicked practices in a Musulman country.”[this is the continuing modern practice in Islam dominated countries – a lesson perhaps for non-Muslims about how to treat Muslims and return the favour]

(28) Sirat-Firuz Shahi is a text either written or dictated by Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq himself. According to this book, the objects of his expedition to Jajnagar were: “extirpating Rai Gajpat, massacring the unbelievers, demolishing their temples, hunting elephants, and getting a glimpse of their enchanting country.” Ain-ul-Mulk also says, “The object of the expedition was to break the idols, to shed the blood of the enemies of Islam (and) to hunt elephants.

Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq (CE 1351-1388)
Puri (Orissa)
“Allah, who is the only true God and has no other emanation, endowed the king of Islam with the strength to destroy this ancient shrine on the eastern sea-coast and to plunge it into the sea, and after its destruction, he ordered the nose of the image of Jagannath to be perforated and disgraced it by casting it down on the ground. They dug out other idols, which were worshipped by the polytheists in the kingdom of Jajnagar, and overthrew them as they did the image of Jagannath, for being laid in front of the mosques along the path of the Sunnis and way of the musallis and stretched them in front of the portals of every mosque, so that the body and sides of the images may be trampled at the time of ascent and descent, entrance and exit, by the shoes on the feet of the Muslims.

(29) Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi : The author, Yahya bin Ahmad bin Abdullah Sirhindi, lived in the reign of Sultan Muizud-Din Abul Fath Mubarak Shah (CE 1421-1434) of the Sayyid dynasty which ruled at Delhi from CE 1414 to 1451. This history starts from the time of Muhammad Ghuri (CE 1175-1206) and closes with the year CE 1434.

Sultan Shamsud-Din Iltutmish (CE 1210-1236)
Vidisha and Ujjain (Madhya Pradesh)
“In AH 631 he invaded Malwah,.. he destroyed that idol-temple which had existed there for the past three hundred years…Next he turned towards Ujjain and conquered it, and after demolishing the idol-temple of Mahakal, he uprooted the statue of Bikramajit together with all other statues and images which were placed on pedestals, and brought them to the capital where they were laid before the Jami Masjid for being trodden under foot by the people.

Sultan Alaud-Din Khalji (CE 1296-1316)
Somnath (Gujarat)
“Ulugh Khan invaded Gujarat. He sacked the whole country… He pursued the Rai upto Somnath. He destroyed the temple of Somnath which was the principal place of worship for the Hindus and great Rais since ancient times. He constructed a mosque on the site and returned to Delhi…”

(30) Tarikh-i-Muhammadi : The author, Muhammad Bihamad Khani was the son of the governor of Irich in Bundelkhand. He was a soldier who participated in several wars. At last he became the disciple of a Sufi, Yusuf Buddha, of Irich and spent the rest of his life in religious pursuits. His history covers a long period – from Prophet Muhammad to CE 1438-39.

Sultan Ghiyasud-Din Tughlaq Shah II (CE 1388-89)
Kalpi (Uttar Pradesh)
“In the meanwhile Delhi received news of the defeat of the armies of Islam which were with Malikzada Mahmud bin Firuz Khan… This Malikzada reached the bank of the Yamuna via Shahpur and renamed Kalpi, which was the abode and centre of the infidels and the wicked, as Muhammadabad, after the name of Prophet Muhammad. He got mosques erected for the worship of Allah in places occupied by temples, and made that city his capital.”

Sultan Nasirud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughlaq (CE 1389-1412)
Kalpi (Uttar Pradesh)
“Historians have recorded that in the auspicious year AH 792 (CE 1389-90) Sultan Nasirud-Din got founded a city named Muhammadabad, after the name of Prophet Muhammad, at a place known as Kalpi which was a home of the accursed infidels, and he got mosques raised in place of temples for the worship of Allah. He got palaces, tombs and schools constructed, and ended the wicked ways of the infidels, and promoted the Shariat of Prophet Muhammad…”

Khandaut (Uttar Pradesh) “He laid waste Khandaut which was the home of infidels and, having made it an abode of Islam, founded Mahmudabad after his own name. He got a splendid palace and fort constructed there and established all the customs of Islam in that city and place.”

Prayag and Kara (Uttar Pradesh) “The Sultan moved with the armies of Islam towards Prayag and Arail with the aim of destroying the infidels, and he laid waste both those places. The vast crowd which had collected at Prayag for worshipping false gods was made captive.”

(31) Jawamiul Kilam : The book contains the malfuzat of Khwajah Sayyid Muhammad bin Yasuf al-Husaini Banda Nawaz Gisu Daraz (CE 1321-1422), one of the leading disciples of Shykh Nasirud-Din Mahmud Chiragh-i-Dihli. He settled down at Gulbarga, the capital of the Bahmani Empire in the Deccan, and became the mentor of Sultan Ahmad Shah Bahmani (CE 1422-1436).

(32) Habibus-Siyar: The author, Ghiyasud-Din Muhammad bin Humamud-Din, is known as Khondmir. He was the son of Mirkhond, the author of the famous Persian history, Rauzatus-Safa. Born at Herat in CE 1475 he reached Agra in 1528-29 when he was introduced to Babur. He accompanied Babur in his expedition to Bengal and Humayun in his expedition to Gujarat where he died in 1534-35. His Khulastul-Akhbar is a history of Asia brought down to CE 1471. The Habibus-Siyar which he started writing in 1521 starts with the birth of the Prophet and comes down to CE 1534-35.

Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (CE 997-1030)
Somnath (Gujarat)
“He several times waged war against the infidels of Hindustan, and he brought under his subjection a large portion of their country, until, having made himself master of Somnat, he destroyed all idol temples of that country…Sultan Mahmud, having entered into the idol temple, beheld an excessively long and broad room, in so much that fifty-six pillars had been made to support the roof. Somnat was an idol cut out of stone, whose height was five yards, of which three yards were visible, and two yards were concealed in the ground. Yaminuddaula having broken that idol with his own hand, ordered that they should pack up pieces of the stone, take them to Ghaznin, and throw them on the threshold of the Jama Masjid…”

Mathura (Uttar Pradesh) “a certain city, which was accounted holy by the people of the country. In that city the men of Ghaznin saw so many strange and wonderful things, that to tell them or to write a description of them is not easy… In short, the Sultan Mahmud having possessed himself of the booty, burned their idol temples and proceeded towards Kanauj.”

Kanauj (Uttar Pradesh)“…The Ghaznivids found in these forts and their dependencies 10,000 idol temples, and they ascertained the vicious belief of the Hindus to be, that since the erection of these buildings no less than three or four hundred thousand years had elapsed. Sultan Mahmud during this expedition achieved many other conquests after he left Kanauj, and sent to hell many of the infidels with blows of the well tempered sword. Such a number of slaves were assembled in that great camp, that the price of a single one did not exceed ten dirhams.”

(33) Babur-Nama is an autobiography written in the form of a diary by Zahirud-Din Muhammad Babur, founder of the Mughal dynasty in India, who proclaimed himself a Padshah after his victory in the First Battle of Panipat (CE 1526), and a Ghazi (killer of kafirs) after the defeat of Rana Sanga in the Battle of Khanwa (CE 1528). While presenting himself as an indefatigable warrior and drug-addict he does not hide the cruelties he committed on the defeated people, particularly his fondness for building towers of the heads of those he captured as prisoners of war or killed in battle. He is very liberal in citing appropriate verses from the Quran on the eve of his battle with RaNa Sanga. In order to ensure his victory, he makes a covenant with Allah by breaking the vessels containing wine as also the cups for drinking it, swearing at the same time that “he would break the idols of the idol-worshippers in a similar manner.” In the Fath-Nama (prayer for victory) composed for him by Shykh Zain, Allah is described as “destroyer of idols from their foundations.”

Zahirud-Din Muhammad Babur Padshah Ghazi (CE 1526-1530)
Chanderi (Madhya Pradesh)
“In AH 934 (CE 1528), I attacked Chanderi and, by the grace of Allah, captured it in a few hours… We got the infidels slaughtered and the place which had been a darul-harb for years, was made into a darul-Islam.”

Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh) “… Going out of the Hathipole Gate of the fort, we arrived at a place called Urwa…Solid rocks surround Urwa on three sides… On these sides people have carved statues in stone. They are in all sizes, small and big. A very big statue, which is on the southern side, is perhaps 20 yards high. These statues are altogether naked and even their private parts are not covered…Urwa is not a bad place. It is an enclosed space. Its biggest blemish is its statues. I ordered that they should be destroyed.

(34) Tarikh-i-Shahi : The author, Ahmad Yadgar, was an old servant of the Sur sultans. He started writing this history on order from Daud Shah bin Sulaiman Shah. It is also known as Tarikh-i-Afaghana and Tarikh-i-Salatin-I-Afaghana. It deals with the history of the Lodis down to CE 1554. He completed it in AH 1001-02 (CE 1592-93). He calls the Hindu kings “rascally infidels”, “black-faced foes”, “evil-doers”, “dark-faced men”, etc. He extols the plunder and depopulation of entire regions by Bahlul Lodi (CE 1451-1489). He reports how Babur presented to his sons, Humayun and Kamran, two daughters of the Raja of Chanderi.

Sultan Sikandar Lodi (CE 1489-1517)
Kurukshetra (Haryana)
“One day he ordered that ‘an expedition be sent to Thaneswar, (the tanks at) Kurkaksetra should be filled up with earth, and the land measured and allotted to pious people for their maintenance,’ …He was such a great partisan of Islam in die days of his youth…”

Nagarkot Kangra (Himachal Pradesh) “Sultan Sikandar led a very pious life… Islam was regarded very highly in his reign. The infidels could not muster the courage to worship idols or bathe in the (sacred) streams. During his holy reign, idols were hidden underground. The stone (idol) of Nagarkot, which had misled the (whole) world, was brought and handed over to butchers so that they might weigh meat with it.”

Sultan Ibrahim Lodi (CE 1517-1526)
Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh)
“It so happened that Raja Man, the ruler of Gwalior who had been warring with the Sultans for years, went to hell. His son, Bikarmajit, became his successor. The Sultan captured the fort after a hard fight. There was a quadruped, made of copper, at the door of the fort. It used to speak. It was brought from there and placed in the fort at Agra. It remained there till the reign of Akbar Badshah. It was melted and a cannon was made out of it at the order of the Badshah.”

(35) Tarikh-i-Sher Shahi : The author, Abbas Sarwani, was connected with the family of Sher Shah Sur by marriage. He wrote this work by order of Akbar, the Mughal emperor, and named it Tuhfat-i-Akbar Shahi. But it became known as Tarikh-i-Sher Shahi because of its main theme. He wrote it probably soon after CE 1579.

Sher Shah Sur (CE 1538-1545) “…The nobles and chiefs said, ‘It seems expedient that the victorious standards should move towards the Dekhin’…Sher Shah replied: ‘What you have said is most right and proper, but it has come into my mind that since the time of Sultan Ibrahim, the infidel zamindars have rendered the country of Islam full of unbelievers, and having thrown down masjids and buildings of the believers, placed idol-shrines in them, and they are in possession of the country of Delhi and Malwa. Until I have cleansed the country from the existing contamination of the unbelievers, I will not go into any other country’…”

(36) Waqiat-i-Mushtaqi : The author, Shykh Rizqullah Mushtaqi, was born in CE 1492 and died in 1581. He heard accounts of the past from the learned men of his times and compiled them in a book. He was a great story-teller who revelled in “marvels”. He was known for his study of Sufi doctrines and spiritual exercises.

Sultan Sikandar Lodi (CE 1489-1517)
Nagarkot Kangra (Himachal Pradesh)
“Khawas Khan….ordered by the Sultan to march towards Nagarkot,..succeeded in conquering it, and having sacked the infidels’ temple of Debi Shankar, brought away the stone which they worshipped, together with a copper umbrella, which was placed over it, and on which a date was engraved in Hindu characters, representing it to be two thousand years old. When the stone was sent to the King, it was given over to the butchers to make weights out of it for the purpose of weighing their meat. From the copper of the umbrella, several pots were made, in which water might be warmed, and which were placed in the masjids and the King’s own palace, so that everyone might wash his hands, feet and face in them and perform his purifications before prayers…”

Mathura (Uttar Pradesh) He got the temples of the infidels destroyed. No trace of infidelity was left at the place in Mathura where the infidels used to take bath. He got caravanserais constructed so that people could stay there, and also the shops of various professionals such as the butchers, bawarchis, nanbais and sweetmeatsellers. If a Hindu went there for bathing even by mistake, he was made to lose his limbs and punished severely. No Hindu could get shaved at that place. No barber would go near a Hindu, whatever be the payment offered.”

Sultan Ghiyasud-Din Khalji of Malwa (CE 1469-1500)
Jodhpur (Rajasthan) “
Once upon a time a temple had been constructed in Jodhpur. The Sultan sent the Qazi of Mandu with orders that he should get the temple demolished. He had said to him, ‘If they do not demolish the temple on instructions from you, you stay there and let me know.’ When the Qazi arrived there, the infidels refused to obey the order of the Sultan and said, ‘Has Ghiyasud-Din freed himself from lechery so that he has turned his attention to this side?’ The Qazi informed the king accordingly. He climbed on his mount in Mandu and reached Jodhpur in a single night. He punished the infidels and laid waste the temple…”[this is most interesting : either the Hindus dared speak of the lechery of the Sultan or the Muslim chroniclers imagined this up and dared write it down!]

(37) Tarikh-i-Alfi was composed in CE 1585 by Mulla Ahmad ThaTawi and asaf Khan. It covers a period of one thousand years from the death of the Prophet.

Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (CE 997-1030)
Somnath (Gujarat)
“Mahmud, as soon as his eyes fell on this idol, lifted up his battle-axe with much anger, and struck it with such force that the idol broke into pieces. The fragments of it were ordered to be taken to Ghaznin, and were cast down at the threshold of the Jami Masjid where they are lying to this day…”134

(38) Burhan-i-Masir : The author, Sayyid Ali bin Azizullah Tabataba Hasani, served Muhammad Qutb Shah (CE 1580-1627) of Golconda at first and then Sultan Burhan Nizam Shah (CE 1591-1595) of Ahmadnagar. He wrote this history in CE 1592. It deals with the Bahmani Sultans of Gulbarga (CE 1347-1422) and Bidar (CE 1422-1538) and the Nizam Shahi Sultans of Ahmadnagar upto CE 1596.

Sultan Alaud-Din Hasan Bahman Shah (CE 1347-1358)
Dankuri (Karnataka)
“The Sultan sent Khwaja-i-Jahan to Gulbarga, Sikandar Khan to Bidar, Qir Khan to Kutar, Safdar Khan to Sakar which is called Sagar, and Husain Garshasp to Kotgir. He appointed other chiefs to invade the kingdom of the infidels. Aitmadul Mulk and Mubarak Khan led raids upon the river Tawi and laid waste the Hindu Kingdom. After having invaded the province of Dankuri and cutting off the head of Manat,135 they attacked Janjwal…”

(39) Tabqat-i-Akbari : The author, Khwajah Nizamud-Din Ahmad bin Muhammad Muqim al-Harbi, was a Bakshi in the reign of Akbar, the Mughal emperor (CE 1556-1605). He wrote this history in CE 1592-93 and added to it, later on, events upto 1593-94. He died next year. The history starts with the times of the Ghaznivid Sultans. The work was initially known as Tabqat-i-Akbar Shahi but became known as simply Tabqat-i-Akbari. It is also known as Tarikh-i-Nizami. It is the first Muslim history which confines itself to India and excludes matter relating to other countries.

Amir Subuktigin (CE 977-997) “After this with kingly energy and determination, he girded up his loins for a war of religion, and invaded Hindustan, and carried away many prisoners of war and other plunder; and in every country, which he conquered, he founded mosques, and he endeavoured to ruin and desolate the territories of Raja Jaipal who, at that time, was the ruler of Hindustan.”

Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (CE 997-1030)
Thanesar (Haryana) “
The Sultan now received information that there was a city in Hindustan called Thanessar, and there was a great temple there in which there was an idol called Jagarsom, whom the people of Hindustan worshipped. He collected a large force with the object of carrying on a religious war, and in the year AH 402 marched towards Thanessar. The son of Jaipal having received intelligence of this, sent an envoy and represented through him, that if the Sultan would relinquish this enterprise, he would send fifty elephants as tribute. The Sultan paid no heed to this offer, and when he reached Thanessar he found the city empty. The soldiers ravaged and plundered whatever they could lay hands upon, broke the idols and carried Jagarsom to Ghaznin. The Sultan ordered that the idol should the placed in front of the place of prayer, so that people would trample upon it.

Mathura (Uttar Pradesh) “From that place [Mahawan] the Sultan advanced to Mathurah, which is a large city containing many temples… and the Sultan completely destroyed the city and burnt the temples… There was one golden idol which was broken up under the orders of the Sultan…”
Somnath (Gujarat) “Then in accordance with his custom, he advanced with his army towards Hindustan with the object of the conquest of Somnath… there were many golden idols in the temple in the city, and the largest of these idols was called Manat…When he reached Somnath, the inhabitants shut the gate on his face. After much fighting and great struggles the fort was taken, and vast multitudes were killed and taken prisoners. The temples were pulled down, and destroyed from their very foundations. The gold idol Somnath was broken into pieces, and one piece was sent to Ghaznin, and was placed at the gate of the Jami Masjid; and for years it remained there.”

Sultan Abu-Said Masud of Ghazni (CE 1030-1042)
Sonipat (Haryana) “
…He marched with his army to the fort of Sonipat, and the commandant of that fort, Danial Har by name, becoming aware of his approach, fled… the army of Islam, having captured that fort, pulled down all the temples and obtained an enormous quantity of booty.”

Ikhtiyarud-Din Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khalji (CE 1202-1206)
Bengal “In short, Muhammad Bakhtiyar assumed the canopy, and had prayers read, and coin struck in his own name and founded mosques and Khankahs and colleges, in place of the temples of the heathens.

Sultan Shamsud-Din Iltutmish (CE 1210-1236)
Ujjain (Madhya Pradesh) “
…In the year AH 631, he invaded the country of Malwah and conquered the fort of Bhilsa. He also took the city of Ujjain, and had the temple of Mahakal… completely demolished, destroying it from its foundations; and he carried away the effigy of Bikramajit… and certain other statues which were fashioned in molten brass, and placed them in the ground in front of the Jami Masjid, so that they might he trampled upon by the people.”

Sultan Jalaud-Din Khalji (CE 1290-1296)
Vidisha (Madhya Pradesh) “About the same time Malik Alaud-Din, the nephew of the Sultan, begged that he might have permission to march against Bhilsah and pillage those tracts. He received the necessary orders, and went and ravaged the country and brought much booty for the Sultan’s service. He also brought two brass idols which had been the object of the worship of the Hindus of these parts; and cast them down in front of the Badaun Gate to be trampled upon by the people

Sultan Alaud-Din Khalji (CE 1296-1316)
Somnath (Gujarat) “In the third year after the accession, the Sultan sent Ulugh Khan and Nasrat Khan, with large armies to invade Gujarat. They ravaged and plundered Nahrwalah, and all the cities of the province… Ulugh Khan and Nasrat Khan also brought the idol, which the Brahmans of Somnath had set up, and were worshipping, in place of the one which Sultan Mahmud had broken to pieces, to Delhi, and placed it where the people would trample upon it…”

Mabar (Tamil Nadu) “Again in the year AH 716 Sultan Alauddin sent Malik Naib towards Dhor Samundar (Dvar Samudra) and Mabar… they then advanced with their troops to Mabar, and conquered it also, and having demolished the temples there, and broken the golden and jewelled idols, sent the gold into the treasury…”

Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq (CE 1351-1388) “Sultan Firuz Shah composed a book also in which he compiled an account of his reign and which he named Futuhat-i-Firuz Shahi. He writes in its second chapter… ‘Muslim and infidel women used to visit sepulchres and temples, which led to many evils. I stopped it. I got mosques built in place of temples’…”[Another instance of encouraging integration and understanding or intermingling of faiths]

Sultan Sikandar Lodi (CE 1489-1517)
Mandrail (Madhya Pradesh) “After the rainy season was over, he marched in Ramzan AH 910 (CE February-March, 1505) for the conquest of the fort of MunDrail. He stayed for a month near Dholpur and sent out armies with orders that they should lay waste the environs of Gwalior and MunDrail. Thereafter he himself laid siege to the fort of MunDrail. Those inside the fort surrendered the fort to him after signing a treaty. The Sultan got the temples demolished and mosques erected in their stead…”

Udit Nagar (Madhya Pradesh)“ he led an expedition towards the fort of Udit Nagar in AH 912 (CE 1506-07)…Although those inside the fort tried their utmost to seek a pardon, but he did not listen to them, and the fort was breached at many points and conquered… He got the temples demolished and mosques constructed in their stead…”

Narwar (Madhya Pradesh) “He ordered Jalal Khan Lodi, the governor of Kalpi, to go there and besiege the fort… The Sultan himself reached Narwar after some time… He kept the fort under siege for an year… The soldiers went out to war everyday and got killed… Thereafter the inhabitants of the fort were in plight due to scarcity of water and dearness of grains, and they asked for forgiveness. They went out with their wealth and property. The Sultan laid waste the temples and raised mosques. Men of learning and students were made to reside there and given scholarships and grants. He stayed for six months under the walls of the fort.”

Mathura (Uttar Pradesh) He got all temples of the infidels demolished, and did not allow even a trace of them to remain. In Mathura, where the infidels used to get together for bathing, he got constructed caravanserais, markets, mosques and madrasas, and appointed there officers with instructions that they should allow no one to bathe; if any Hindu desired to get his beard or head shaved in the city of Mathura, no barber was prepared to cut his hair.”

Sultan Ibrahim Lodi (CE 1517-1526)
Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh) “At the same time the Sultan thought that though ‘Sultan Sikandar had led several expeditions for conquering the fort of Gwalior and the country attached to it but met with no success.’ Consequently he sent azam Humayun, the governor of Kara, with 300,000 horsemen and 300 elephants for the conquest of Gwalior… After some time the royal army laid a mine, filled it with gunpowder, and set fire to it. He entered the fort and took possession of it after the wall of the fort was breached. He saw there a bull made of brass, which the Hindus had worshipped for years. In keeping with a royal order, the bull was brought to Delhi and placed at the Baghdad Gate. It was still there till the reign of Akbar. The writer of this history saw it himself.”

Sultan Mahmud bin Ibrahim Sharqi (CE 1440-1457)
Orissa“After some time he proceeded to Orissa with the intention of jihad. He attacked places in the neighbourhood of that province and laid them waste, and destroyed the temples after demolishing them…”
Sultan Mahmud Khalji of Malwa (CE 1436-1469)
Chittaurgarh (Rajasthan) “After he had crossed the river Bhim, he started laying waste the country and capturing its people by sending expeditions towards Chittor everyday. He started constructing mosques after demolishing temples. He stayed 2-3 days at every halt.

Kumbhalgadh (Rajasthan) “When he halted near Kumbhalmir which was a very big fort of that province, and well-known for its strength all over Hindustan, Deva the Vakil of the Governor of Kumbha took shelter in the fort and started fighting. It so happened that a magnificent temple had been erected in front of that fort and surrounded by ramparts on all sides. That temple had been filled with weapons of war and other stores. Sultan Mahmud planned to storm the ramparts and captured it [the temple] in a week. A large number of Rajputs were made prisoners and slaughtered. About the edifices of the temple, he ordered that they should be stocked with wood and fired, and water and vinegar was sprinkled on the walls. That magnificent mansion which it had taken many years to raise, was destroyed in a few moments. He got the idols broken and they were handed over to the butchers for being used as weights while selling meat. The biggest idol which had the form of a ram was reduced to powder which was put in betel-leaves to be given to the Rajputs so that they could eat their god.”

Mandalgadh (Rajasthan) “He started for the conquest of ManDalgaDh on 26 Muharram, AH 861 (CE 24 December, 1456… Reaching there the Sultan issued orders that ‘trees should be uprooted, houses demolished and no trace should be left of human habitation’… A great victory was achieved on 1 Zilhijja, AH 861 (CE 20 October, 1457)…He got the temples demolished and their materials used in the construction of a Jami Masjid. He appointed there a qazi, a mufti, a muhtasib, a khatib and a muzzin and established order in that place…

Kelwara and Delwara (Rajasthan) “Sultan Mahmud started again in AH 863 (CE 1458-59) for punishing the Rajputs. When he halted at ahad, Prince Ghiyasud-Din and Fidan Khan were sent towards Kilwara and Dilwara in order to lay waste those lands. They destroyed those lands and attacked the environs of Kumbhalmir…When they came to the presence of the Sultan and praised the fort of Kumbhalmir, the Sultan started for Kumbhalmir next day and went ahead destroying temples on the way. When he halted near that fort, he mounted his horse and went up a hill which was to the east of the fort in order to survey the city. He said, ‘It is not possible to capture this fort without a siege lasting for several years’…”

Sultan Muzaffar Shah I of Gujarat (CE 1392-1410)
Idar (Gujarat)
“In AH 796 (CE 1393-94), it was reported that Sultan Muhammad bin Firuz Shah had died at Delhi and that the affairs of the kingdom were in disorder so that a majority of zamindars were in revolt, particularly the Raja of idar. Zafar Khan collected a large army and mountain-like elephants and proceeded to idar in order to punish the Raja… The Raja of idar had no time to prepare a defence and shut himself in the fort. The armies of Zafar Khan occupied the Kingdom of idar and started plundering and destroying it. They levelled with the ground whatever temple they found… The Raja of idar showed extreme humility and pleaded for forgiveness through his representatives. Zafar Khan took a tribute according to his own desire and made up his mind to attack Somnat..In AH 803 (CE 1399-1400) azam Humayun paid one year’s wages (in advance) to his army and after making great preparations, he attacked the fort of idar with a view to conquer it. After the armies of the Sultan had besieged the fort from all sides and the battle continued non-stop for several days the Raja of idar evacuated the fort one night and ran away towards Bijanagar. In the morning Zafar Khan entered the fort and, after expressing his gratefulness to Allah, and destroying the temples, he appointed officers in the fort…”

Somnath (Gujarat) “In AH 797 (CE 1394-95)… he proceeded for the destruction of the temple of Somnat. On the way he made Rajputs food for his sword and demolished whatever temple he saw at any place. When he arrived at Somnat, he got the temple burnt and the idol of Somnat broken. He made a slaughter of the infidels and laid waste the city. He got a Jami Masjid raised there and appointed officers of the Sharih…“In AH 804 (CE 1401-02) reports were received by Zafar Khan that the infidels and Hindus of Somnat had again started making efforts for promoting the ways of their religion. azam Humayun started for that place and sent an army in advance. When the residents of Somnat learnt this, they advanced along the sea-shore and offered battle. azam Humayun reached that place speedily and he slaughtered that group. Those who survived took shelter in the fort of the port at Dip (Diu). After some time, he conquered that place as well, slaughtered that group also and got their leaders trampled under the feet of elephants. He got the temples demolished and a Jami Masjid constructed. Having appointed a qazi, mufti and other guardians of Sharih… he returned to the capital at Patan.”

Sultan Ahmad Shah I of Gujarat (CE 1411-1443)

Champaner (Gujarat) “Sultan Ahmad… encamped near Champaner on 7 Rabi-us-Sani, AH 822 (CE 3 May, 1419). He destroyed temples wherever he found them and returned to Ahmadabad.”

Mewar (Rajasthan) “In Rajab AH 836 (CE February-March, 1433) Sultan Ahmad mounted an expedition for the conquest of Mewar and Nagaur. When he reached the town of Nagaur, he sent out armies for the destruction of towns and villages and levelled with the ground whatever temple was found at whichever place… Having laid waste the land of Kilwara, the Sultan entered the land of Dilwara, and he ruined the lofty palaces of Rana Mokal and destroyed the temples and idols…”

Sultan Qutbud-Din Ahmad Shah II of Gujarat (CE 1451-1458)
Kumbhalgadh (Rajasthan)
“…Sultan Qutbud-Din felt insulted and he attacked the fort of Kumbhalmir in AH 860 (CE 1455-56)… When he reached near Sirohi, the Raja of that place offered battle but was defeated.
From that place the Sultan entered the kingdom of Rana Kumbha and he sent armies in all directions for invading the country and destroying the temples…”

Sultan Mahmud BegDha of Gujarat (CE 1458-1511)

Junagadh (Gujarat) “In AH 871 (CE 1466-67) he started for the conquest of Karnal [Girnar] which is now known as Junagadh. It is said that this country had been in the possession of the predecessors of Rai Mandalik for the past two thousand years… Sultan Mahmud relied on the help of Allah and proceeded there; on the way he laid waste the land of Sorath… From that place the Sultan went towards the temple of those people. Many Rajputs who were known as Parwhan, decided to lay down their lives, and started fighting with swords and spears in (defence) of the temple… Sultan Mahmud postponed the conquest of the fort to the next year… and returned to Ahmadabad.[A hint of the resistance of the Hindus…very naughty indeed!]
Dwarka (Gujarat) “After some time the Sultan started contemplating the conquest of the port of Jagat which is a place of worship for the BrahmaNas… With this resolve he started for the port of Jagat on 16 Zil-Hajja, AH 877 (CE 14 July, 1473). He reached Jagat with great difficulty due to the narrowness of the road and the presence of forests… He destroyed the temple of Jagat…”

Sultan Muzaffar Shah II of Gujarat (CE 1511-1526)
Idar (Gujarat) “Sultan Muzaffar… started for idar…The Raja of idar evacuated the fort and took refuge in the mountain of Bijanagar. The Sultan, when he reached idar, found there ten Rajputs ready to lay down their lives. He heaped barbarities on them and killed them. He did not leave even a trace of palaces, temples, gardens and trees…”

Sultan Sikandar Butshikan of Kashmir (CE 1389-1413)
Kashmir “He got demolished the famous temple of Mahadeva at Bahrare. The temple was dug out from its foundations and the hole (that remained) reached the water level. Another temple at Jagdar was also demolished… Raja Alamadat had got a big temple constructed at Sinpur. He had come to know from astrologers that after hundred years a king by the name of Sikandar would get the temple destroyed and the idol of Utarid, which was in it, broken. He got this [forecast] inscribed on a copper plate which was kept in a box and buried under the temple. The inscription came up when the temple was destroyed [by Sikandar]…The value of currency had come down, because Sultan Sikandar had got idols of gold, silver and copper broken and turned into coins…”

Sultan Fath Shah of Kashmir (CE 1489-1499 and 1505-1516)

Kashmir “Fath Shah ascended the throne in AH 894 (CE 1488-89)… In those days Mir Shams, a disciple of Shah Qasim Anwar, reached Kashmir ….All endowments, imlak, places of worship and temples were entrusted to his disciples. His Sufis used to destroy temples and no one could stop them…” [The peaceful sufi converters of Kashmir]

Jalalud-Din Muhammad Akbar Padshah Ghazi (CE 1556-1605)
Nagarkot Kangra (Himachal Pradesh) “On the 1st Rajab 990 [CE 1582] he (Husain Quli Khan) encamped by a field of maize near NagarkoT. The fortress (hissar) of Bhim, which is an idol temple of Mahamai, and in which none but her servants dwelt, was taken by the valour of the assailants at the first assault. [the example of Muslim valour as best practised on a few priests] A party of Rajputs, who had resolved to die, fought most desperately till they were all cut down. A number of Brahmans who for many years had served the temple, never gave one thought to flight, and were killed. Nearly 200 black cows belonging to Hindus had, during the struggle, crowded together for shelter in the temple. Some savage Turks, while the arrows and bullets were falling like rain, killed those cows. They then took off their boots and filled them with the blood and cast it upon the roof and walls of the temple. [This is the Great Akbar’s army – supposed to be a paragon of tolerance towards non-Muslim faiths]

Part 7:

part 1: enslavement of non-Muslims

part 4: the myth of the role of Sufis in conversion

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2 Responses to “How Islam came to India and why now it needs to go – 6 – cultural destruction of non-Muslims”

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Excellent content but poor organization and readability. Not easy on the eye.

An eye opener for so called secular politicians of this country if ever they find time to go through as they are always busy in disrupting workand wasting hard earned money of publicing of parliament and shamelessly earning their salaries ,allowances and retirement benefits without working


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