How Islam came to India and why now it needs to go from India – 5 – cultural destruction of non-Muslims

Posted on August 23, 2008. Filed under: Hindu, History, India, Islam, Muslims, Politics, religion |

What about the Thaparite fable of natural decay and ruin by forces of nature alone of all cultural centres of non-Muslims in India and the construction of Islamic sites on these ruins an act of love and gratitude for enlightenment by the peacefully and voluntarily converted into Islam ex-non-Muslims?

The Thaparite school of Indian History is fond of shouting that narratives of destruction of cultural icons of non-Muslims have been copied by succeeding historians from the writings of their predecessors and they are all fabrications of a feverish imagination and boasting for glorification of Islam. If the question is raised as to why this boasting about destruction is such a glorifying quality in Islam, it would immediately be met with a tremendous din and cacophony from a whole horde of “secular historians” that “Islam” is being attacked, and that such a din alone is sufficient answer for the question raised.

It is never pointed out that sometimes the same site is repeatedly attacked by succeeding generations of Islamic invaders and rulers and that there are archaeological evidence of destruction of sites not mentioned or found worth mentioning by the Islamic chroniclers. It is most significant to note that these Islamic historians repeat narratives and add details which reveal the continuing and growing interest in Islam to associate destruction of cultural icons of non-Muslims with Islam as an integral part of Islam.

We will divide this very long list of narrative claims of destruction and decimation of non-Muslim cultures by Islamic historians into several parts (but the list in itself is a very small proportion of those available in Persian, Arabic and other related Islamic languages, and only those which are available in translations)

Futuhul-Buldan : The author, Ahmad bin Yahya bin Jabir, is known as al-Biladuri. He lived at the court of Khalîfa Al-Mutawakkal (CE 847-861) and died in CE 893. His history is one of the earliest and major Arab chronicles. It gives an account of Arab conquests in Syria, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Iran, Armenia, Transoxiana, Africa, Spain and Sindh. The account is brought down to Khalîfa Mu’tasim’s reign in CE 842.

Ibn Samurah (CE 653) His full name was Abd ar-Rahman bin Samurah bin Habib bin Abd ash-Shams. He was appointed governor of Seistan after the first Arab invasion of that province in CE 650 was defeated and dispersed. Ibn Samurah reached the capital of Seistan in CE 653.
Seistan (Iran) “On reaching Dawar, he surrounded the enemy in the mountain of Zur, where there was a famous Hindu temple.…Their idol of Zur was of gold, and its eyes were two rubies. The zealous Musalmans cut off its hands and plucked out its eyes, and then remarked to the Marzaban how powerless was his idol to do either good or evil…”

Qutaibah bin Muslim al-Bahila (CE 705-715) He was a general of Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf Saqafi, the notorious Governor of Iraq under Caliph Al-Walid I (CE 705-715). He was made Governor of Khurasan in CE 705 and is renowned in the history of Islam as the conqueror of Central Asia right upto Kashghar. This is also the Hajjaj who kitted out Qasim and sent him on the murderous campaign in Sind for loot and sex-slaves. Samarqand (Farghana) “Other authorities say that Kutaibah granted peace for 700,000 dirhams and entertainment for the Moslems for three days. The terms of surrender included also the houses of the idols and the fire temples. The idols were thrown out, plundered of their ornaments and burned, although the Persians used to say that among them was an idol with which whoever trifled would perish. But when Kutaibah set fire to it with his own hand, many of them accepted Islam.”

Muhammad bin Qasim (CE 712-715) He was the nephew as well as son-in-law of Al-Hajjaj, who sent him to Sindh after more than a dozen invasions of that province had been defeated by the Hindus.
Debal (Sindh)“…The town was thus taken by assault, and the carnage endured for three days. The governor of the town, appointed by Dahir, fled and the priests of the temple were massacred. Muhammad marked a place for the Musalmans to dwell in, built a mosque, and left four thousand Musalmans to garrison the place…
“…‘Ambissa son of Ishak Az Zabbi, the governor of Sindh, in the Khilafat of Mutasim billah knocked down the upper part of the minaret of the temple and converted it into a prison. At the same time he began to repair the ruined town with the stones of the minaret…”
Multan (Punjab) “…He then crossed the Biyas, and went towards Multan… Muhammad destroyed the water-course; upon which the inhabitants, oppressed with thirst, surrendered at discretion. He massacred the men capable of bearing arms, but the children were taken captive, as well as the ministers of the temple, to the number of six thousand. The Muslamans found there much gold in a chamber ten cubits long by eight broad, and there was an aperture above, through which the gold was poured into the chamber…”
Hasham bin ‘Amru al-Taghlabi : He was appointed Governor of Sindh by Khalifa Al-Mansur (CE 754-775) of the Abbasid dynasty. He led many raids towards different parts of India, both by land and sea.
Kandahar (Maharashtra) “He then went to Kandahar in boats and conquered it. He destroyed the Budd there, and built in its place a mosque.”

Tarikh-i-Tabari: The author, Abu Jafar Muhammad bin Jarir at-Tabari, is considered to be the foremost historian of Islam and the Tarikh is regarded as Umdatul-Kutab, mother of histories. He was born at Amil in Tabaristan in the year CE 839. He was educated at Baghdad and lived in Basra and Kufa as well. He travelled to Egypt and Damascus in order to perfect his knowledge of Traditions. He spent the last days of his life in Baghdad where he died in CE 922. The citations below are only summaries made by modern historians.
Qutaibah bin Muslim al-Bahili (CE 705-715)
Beykund (Khurasan)“The ultimate capture of Beykund (in CE 706) rewarded him with an incalculable booty; even more than had hitherto fallen into the hands of the Mahommedans by the conquest of the entire province of Khorassaun; and the unfortunate merchants of the town, having been absent on a trading excursion while their country was assailed by the enemy, and finding their habitations desolate on their return contributed further to enrich the invaders, by the ransom which they paid for the recovery of their wives and children. The ornaments alone, of which these women had been plundered, being melted down, produced, in gold, one hundred and fifty thousand meskals; of a dram and a half each. Among the articles of the booty, is also described an image of gold, of fifty thousand meskals, of which the eyes were two pearls, the exquisite beauty and magnitude of which excited the surprise and admiration of Kateibah. They were transmitted by him, with a fifth of the spoil to Hejauje, together with a request that he might be permitted to distribute, to the troops, the arms which had been found in the place in great profusion.”
Samarqand (Farghana) “A breach was, however, at last effected in the walls of the city in CE 712 by the warlike machines of Kateibah; and some of the most daring of its defenders having fallen by the skill of his archers, the besieged demanded a cessation of arms to the following day, when they promised to capitulate. The request was acceded to by Kateibah; and a treaty was the next day accordingly concluded between him and the prince of Samarkand, by which the latter engaged for the annual payment of ten millions of dirhems, and a supply of three thousand slaves; of whom it was particularly stipulated, that none should either be in a state of infancy, or ineffective from old age and debility. He further contracted that the ministers of his religion should be expelled from their temples and their idols destroyed and burnt; that Kateibah should be allowed to establish a mosque in the place of the principal temple, in which, to discharge the duties of his faith… To all this, Ghurek, with whatever reluctance, was compelled to subscribe, and he proceeded accordingly to prepare for the reception of Kateibah; who at the period agreed upon, entered Samarkand with a retinue of four hundred persons, selected from his own relatives, and the principal commanders of his army. He was met by Ghurek, with a respect bordering on adoration, and conducted to the gate of the principal temple, which he immediately entered; and after performing two rekkauts of the ritual of his faith, directed the images of pagan worship to be brought before him, for the purpose of being committed to the flames. From this some of the Turks or Tartars of Samarkand, endeavouring to dissuade him, by a declaration, that among the images, there was one, which if any person ventured to consume, that person should certainly perish; Kateibah informed them, that he should not shrink from the experiment, and accordingly set fire to the whole collection with his own hands; it was soon consumed to ashes, and fifty thousand meskals of gold and silver, collected from the nails which has been used in the workmanship of the images.”
Yaqub bin Laith (CE 870-871) was a highway robber who succeeded in seizing Khurasan from the Tahirid governors of the Abbasid Caliphate and founded the short-lived Saffarid dynasty.
Balkh and Kabul (Afghanistan) “He first took Bamian, which he probably reached by way of Herat, and then marched on Balkh where he ruined (the temple) Naushad. On his way back from Balkh he attacked Kabul…
“Starting from Panjhir, the place he is known to have visited, he must have passed through the capital city of the Hindu Sahis to rob the sacred temple – the reputed place of coronation of the Sahi rulers-of its sculptural wealth…The exact details of the spoil collected from the Kabul valley are lacking. The Tarikh [-i-Sistan] records 50 idols of gold and silver and Masudi mentions elephants. The wonder excited in Baghdad by elephants and pagan idols forwarded to the Caliph by Yaqub also speaks for their high value. The best of our authorities put the date of this event in 257 (870-71). Tabari is more precise and says that the idols sent by Ya’qûb reached Baghdad in Rabi al-Akhar, 257 (Feb.-March, 871). Thus the date of the actual invasion may be placed at the end of CE 870.”

Tarikhul-Hind : The author, Abu Rihan Muhammad bin Ahmad al-Biruni al-Khwarizmi, was born in about CE 970-71. He was an astronomer, geometer, historian and logician. He was sent to Ghazni in an embassy from the Sultan of Khwarizm. On invitation from Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (CE 997-1030) he entered his service, travelled to India and spent forty years in the country, chiefly in the Punjab. He learnt Sanskrit and translated some works from that language into Arabic. His history treats of the literature and learning of the Hindus at the commencement of the eleventh century.
Jalam ibn Shaiban (Ninth century CE)
Multan (Punjab) The Sun Temple at Multan has been described by early Arab geographers like Sulaiman, Masudi, Istakhri and Ibn Hauqal who travelled in India during the ninth and tenth centuries CE. The Arab invaders did not destroy it because besides being a rich source of revenue, it provided protection against Hindu counter-attack. “Multan,” wrote Masudi, “is one of the strongest frontier places of the Musalmãns… In it is the idol also known by the name of Multan.13 The inhabitants of Sind and India perform pilgrimages to it from the most distant places; they carry money, precious stones, aloe wood and all sorts of perfumes there to fulfil their vows. The greatest part of the revenue of the king of Multan is derived from the rich presents brought to the idol… When the unbelievers march against Multan and the faithful do not feel themselves strong enough to oppose them, they threaten to break their idol, and their enemies immediately withdraw.” [If true then this would be another wonderful example of the inherent meanness and wily nature of Islamic strategy – it always, almost always pretends to be something it is not – it is all a part of an integrated life philosophy of deception of others to satisfy the basic and primitive biolgical greed]

Al-Biruni records: “A famous idol of theirs was that of Multan, dedicated to the sun, and therefore called Aditya. It was of wood and covered with red Cordovan leather; in its two eyes were two red rubies. It is said to have been made in the last Kritayuga… When Muhammad Ibn Alkasim Ibn Almunabih conquered Multan, he inquired how the town had become so very flourishing and so many treasures had there been accumulated, and then he found out that this idol was the cause, for there came pilgrims from all sides to visit it. Therefore he thought it best to have the idol where it was, but he hung a piece of cow’s flesh on its neck by way of mockery. On the same place a mosque was built. When the Karmatians occupied Multan, Jalam Ibn Shaiban, the usurper, broke the idol into pieces and killed its priests…”

Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (CE 997-1030)
Thanesar (Haryana) “The city of Taneshar is highly venerated by Hindus. The idol of that place is called Cakrasvamin, i.e. the owner of the cakra, a weapon which we have already described. It is of bronze, and is nearly the size of a man. It is now lying in the hippodrome in Ghazna, together with the Lord of Somanath, which is a representation of the penis of Mahadeva, called Linga.”
Somnath (Gujarat) “The linga he raised was the stone of Somnath, for soma means the moon and natha means master, so that the whole word means master of the moon. The image was destroyed by the Prince Mahmud, may God be merciful to him! – AH 416. He ordered the upper part to be broken and the remainder to be transported to his residence, Ghaznin, with all its coverings and trappings of gold, jewels, and embroidered garments. Part of it has been thrown into the hippodrome of the town, together with the Cakrasvamin, an idol of bronze, that had been brought from Taneshar. Another part of the idol from Somanath lies before the door of the mosque of Ghaznin, on which people rub their feet to clean them from dirt and wet.”

(4) Kitabul-Yamini : The author of this history in Arabic was Abu Nasr Muhammad ibn Muhammad al Jabbarul-Utbi. The family from Utba had held important offices under the Samanis of Bukhara. Utbi himself became Secretary to Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (CE 997-1030). His work comprises the whole of the reign of Subuktigin and that of Sultan Mahmud down to the year CE 1020. He lived a few years longer. Persian translations of this history are known as Tarjuma-i-Yamini or Tarikh-i-Yamini.
Amir Subuktigin of Ghazni (CE 977-997)
Lamghan (Afghanistan) “The Amir marched out towards Lamghan, which is a city celebrated for its great strength and abounding wealth. He conquered it and set fire to the places in its vicinity which were inhabited by infidels, and demolishing idol temples, he established Islam in them. He marched and captured other cities and killed the polluted wretches, destroying the idolaters and gratifying the Musalmans.”

Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (CE 997-1030)
Narain (Rajasthan)“The Sultan again resolved on an expedition to Hind, and marched towards Narain, urging his horses and moving over ground, hard and soft, until he came to the middle of Hind, where he reduced chiefs, who, up to that time obeyed no master, overturned their idols, put to the sword the vagabonds of that country, and with delay and circumspection proceeded to accomplish his design…”
Nardin (Punjab) “After the Sultan had purified Hind from idolatry, and raised mosques therein, he determined to invade the capital of Hind to punish those who kept idols and would not acknowledge the unity of God… He marched with a large army in the year AH 404 (CE 1013) during a dark night…[ so much for the the so called injunction against night attacks”] “A stone was found there in the temple of the great Budda on which an inscription was written purporting that the temple had been founded fifty thousand years ago. The Sultan was surprised at the ignorance of these people, because those who believe in the true faith represent that only seven thousand years have elapsed since the creation of the world, and the signs of resurrection are even now approaching. The Sultan asked his wise men the meaning of this inscription and they all concurred in saying that it was false, and no faith was to be put in the evidence of a stone.” [ A wonderful instance of the superior knowledge and high intellectual level of the Islamic dignitaries on holiday then in India]
Thanesar (Haryana) “The chief of Tanesar was… obstinate in his infidelity and denial of God. So the Sultan marched against him with his valiant warriors, for the purpose of planting the standards of Islãm and extirpating idolatry…The blood of the infidels flowed so copiously, that the stream was discoloured, not withstanding its purity, and people were unable to drink it… The victory was gained by God’s grace, who has established Islãm for ever as the best of religions, notwithstanding that idolaters revolt against it… Praise be to God, the protector of the world, for the honour he bestows upon Islãm and Musulmãns.”
Mathura (Uttar Pradesh)“The Sultan then departed from the environs of the city, in which was a temple of the Hindus. The name of this place was Maharatul Hind… On both sides of the city there were a thousand houses, to which idol temples were attached, all strengthened from top to bottom by rivets of iron, and all made of masonry work…In the middle of the city there was a temple larger and firmer than the rest, which can neither be described nor painted. The Sultan thus wrote respecting it: – If any should wish to construct a building equal to this, he would not be able to do it without expending an hundred thousand, thousand red dinars, and it would occupy two hundred years even though the most experienced and able workmen were employed’… The Sultan gave orders that all the temples should be burnt with naptha and fire, and levelled with the ground.”
Kanauj (Uttar Pradesh) “In Kanauj there were nearly ten thousand temples, which the idolaters falsely and absurdly represented to have been founded by their ancestors two or three hundred thousand years ago… Many of the inhabitants of the place fled and were scattered abroad like so many wretched widows and orphans, from the fear which oppressed them, in consequence of witnessing the fate of their deaf and dumb idols. Many of them thus effected their escape, and those who did not fly were put to death,”

(5) Diwan-i-Salman The author, Khwajah Masud bin Sad bin Salman, was a poet. He wrote poems in praise of the Ghaznavid Sultans – Masud, Ibrahim and Bahram Shah. He died sometime between CE 1126 and 1131.
Sultan Abul Muzaffar Ibrahim (CE 1059-1099) “As power and the strength of a lion was bestowed upon Ibrahim by the Almighty, he made over to him the well-populated country of Hindustan and gave him 40,000 valiant horsemen to take the country, in which there were more than 1000 rais… Its length extends from Lahore to the Euphrates, and its breadth from Kashmir to the borders of Sistan… The army of the king destroyed at one time a thousand temples of idols, which had each been built for more than a thousand years. How can I describe the victories of the king…”
Jalandhar (Punjab) “The narrative of thy battles eclipses the stories of Rustam and Isfandiyar. Thou didst bring an army in one night from Dhangan to Jalandhar… Thou didst direct but one assault and by that alone brought destruction upon the country. By the morning meal not one soldier, not one Brahman, remained unkilled or uncaptured. Their beads were severed by the carriers of swords. Their houses were levelled with the ground with flaming fire… Thou has secured victory to the country and to religion, for amongst the Hindus this achievement will be remembered till the day of resurrection.”
Malwa (Madhya Pradesh) “Thou didst depart with a thousand joyful anticipations on a holy expedition, and didst return having achieved a thousand victories… On this journey the army destroyed a thousand idol-temples and thy elephants trampled over more than a hundred strongholds. Thou didst march thy arm to Ujjain; Malwa trembled and fled from thee… On the way to Kalinjar thy pomp obscured the light of day. The lip of infidelity became dry through fear of thee, the eye of plural-worship became blind…”

(6) Chach-Namah This Persian history was translated from Arabic by Muhammad Ali bin Hamid bin Abu Bakr Kufi in the time of Nasirud-Din Qabacha, a slave of Muhammad Ghori, who fought over the throne of Delhi with Shamsud-Din Iltutmish (CE 1210-1236). The translator who lived at Uccha had gone to Alor and Bhakkar in search of accounts of the Arab conquest. He met a Maulana who had inherited a history written in Arabic by one of his ancestors. The translation in Persian followed because Kufi found that the Hijajji Arabic of the original was little understood by people in those days while the work was “a mine of wisdom.” The Arabic original has been lost. The author remains unknown.

Muhammad bin Qasim (CE 712-715)
Nirun (Sindh) “Muhammad built at Nirun a mosque on the site of the temple of Budh, and ordered prayers to be proclaimed in the Muhammadan fashion and appointed an Imam.”
Siwistan and Sisam (Sindh) Muhammad bin Qasim wrote to al-Hajjãj, the governor of Iraq: “The forts of Siwistan and Sîsam have been already taken. The nephew of Dahir, his warriors, and principal officers have been despatched, and infidels converted to Islam or destroyed. Instead of idol temples, mosques and other places of worship have been built, pulpits have been erected, the Khutba is read, the call to prayers is raised so that devotions are performed at the stated hours. The takbir and praise to the Almighty God are offered every morning and evening.”
Multan (Punjab) “Then all the great and principal inhabitants of the city assembled together, and silver to the weight of sixty thousand dirams was distributed and every horseman got a share of four hundred dirams weight. After this, Muhammad Qasim said that some plan should be devised for realizing the money to be sent to the Khalifa. He was pondering over this, when suddenly a Brahman came and said, ‘Heathenism is now at an end, the temples are thrown down, the world has received the light of Islam, and mosques are built instead of idol temples. I have heard from the elders of Multan that in ancient times there was a chief in this city whose name was Jibawin, and who was a descendant of the Rai of Kashmir. He was a Brahman and a monk, he strictly followed his religion, and always occupied his time in worshipping idols. When his treasures exceeded all limits and computation, he made a reservoir on the eastern side of Multan, which was hundred yards square. In the middle of it he built a temple fifty yards square, and he made a chamber in which he concealed forty copper jars each of which was filled with African gold dust. A treasure of three hundred and thirty mans of gold was buried there. Over it there is an idol made of red gold, and trees are planted round the reservoir.’ It is related by historians, on the authority of ‘Ali bin Muhammad who had heard it from Abu Muhammad Hindui that Muhammad Qasim arose and with his counsellors, guards and attendants, went to the temple. He saw there an idol made of gold, and its two eye were bright red rubies……Muhammad Qasim ordered the idol to be taken up. Two hundred and thirty mans of gold were obtained, and forty jars filled with gold dust… This gold and the image were brought to treasury together with the gems and pearls and treasures which were obtained from the plunder of Multan.”
Janaki was one of the daughters of King Dahir of Sindh. She was captured along with her sister and sent to the Khalifa at Baghdad. When the Khalifa invited Janaki to share his bed, she lied to him that she had already been violated by Muhammad bin Qasim. Her sister supported her statement. The Khalifa ordered that Muhammad be sewed up in raw hide and sent to his court. Muhammad was already dead when the chest containing him arrived in Baghdad. Janaki accused the Khalifa of having killed one of his great generals without making proper enquiry. She said: “The king has committed a very grievous mistake, for he ought not, on account of two slave girls, to have destroyed a person who had taken captive a hundred thousand modest women like us… and who instead of temples had erected mosques, pulpits and minarets…” [this is a story which sounds really like a fantasy, and could be based on a core of reality in which either the Sindhi princesses voluntarily tore their hymen or they were actually raped by Qasim or his followers after capture of Debal or Qasim’s enemies had organized the rape of the girls during transportation to the Khalifa and then had them presented knowing that the Khalifah would feel insulted to be a taster of “the left over” of another man]

(7) Jamiul-Hikayat : The author of this collection of stories was Maulana Nurud-Din Muhammad Ufi. He was born in or near the city of Bukhara in Transoxiana. He came to India and lived in Delhi for some time in the reign of Shamsuddinn Iltutmish (CE 1210-1236).

Amru bin Laith (CE 879-900)
Sakawand (Afghanistan) “It is related that Amru Lais conferred the governorship of Zabulistan on Fardaghan and sent him there at the head of four thousand horse. There was a large Hindu place of worship in that country, which was called Sakawand, and people used to come on pilgrimage from the most remote parts of Hindustan to the idols of that place. When Fardaghan arrived in Zabulistan he led his army against it, took the temple, broke the idols in pieces and overthrew the idolaters…”

(8) Tajul-Masr: The author, Sadruddin Muhammad Hasan Nizami, was born at Nishapur in Khurasan. He had to leave his ancestral place because of the Mongol invasion. He came to India and started writing his history in CE 1205. The history opens with the year 1191 and comes down to CE 1217.

Sultan Muhammad Ghori (CE 1175-1206)

Ajmer (Rajasthan) “He destroyed the pillars and foundations of the idol temples and built in their stead mosques and colleges, and the precepts of Islam, and the customs of the law were divulged and established…”
Kuhram and Samana (Punjab) “The Government of the fort of Kohram and of Samana were made over by the Sultan to Kutbuddin… He purged by his sword the land of Hind from the filth of infidelity and vice, and freed it from the thorn of God-plurality, and the impurity of idol-worship, and by his royal vigour and intrepidity, left not one temple standing…”
Meerut (Uttar Pradesh) “Kutbuddin marched from Kohrãm ‘and when he arrived at Mirat -which is one of the celebrated forts of the country of Hind, for the strength of its foundations and superstructure, and its ditch, which was as broad as the ocean and fathomless-an army joined him, sent by the dependent chiefs of the country’. The fort was captured, and a Kotwal appointed to take up his station in the fort, and all the idol temples were converted into mosques.”
Delhi “He then marched and encamped under the fort of Delhi… The city and its vicinity were freed from idols and idols-worship, and in the sanctuaries of the images of the Gods, mosques were raised by the worshippers of one God. Kutbuddin built the Jami Masjid at Delhi, and adorned it with stones and gold obtained from the temples which had been demolished by elephants, and covered it with inscriptions in Toghra, containing the divine commands.”
Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh) “From that place [Asni] the royal army proceeded towards Benares ‘which is the centre of the country of Hind’ and here they destroyed nearly one thousand temples, and raised mosques on their foundations; and the knowledge of the law became promulgated, and the foundations of religion were established…”
Aligarh (Uttar Pradesh) “There was a certain tribe in the neighbourhood of Kol which had… occasioned much trouble… ‘Three bastions were raised as high as heaven with their beads, and their carcases became the food of beasts of prey. That tract was freed from idols and idol-worship and the foundations of infidelity were destroyed’…”
Bayana (Rajasthan) “When Kutbuddin beard of the Sultan’s march from Ghazna, he was much rejoiced and advanced as far as Hãnsî to meet him… In the year AH 592 (CE 1196), they marched towards Thangar, and the centre of idolatry and perdition became the abode of glory and splendour…”

Kalinjar (Uttar Pradesh) “In the year AH 599 (CE 1202), Kutbuddin proceeded to the investment of Kalinjar, on which expedition he was accompanied by the Sahib-Kiran, Shamsuddin Altamsh… The temples were converted into mosques and abodes of goodness, and the ejaculations of bead-counters and voices of summoners to prayer ascended to high heaven, and the very name of idolatry was annihilated…”

Sultan Shamsuddin Iltutmish (CE 1210-1236)
Delhi “The Sultan then returned [from Jalor] to Delhi… and after his arrival ‘not a vestige or name remained of idol temples which had raised their heads on high; and the light of faith shone out from the darkness of infidelity… and the moon of religion and the state became resplendent from the heaven of prosperity and glory.”

(9) Kamilut-Tawarikh : Also known as Tarikh-i-Kamil, it was written by Sheikh Abul Hasan Al ibn Abul Karam Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abdul Karim ibn Abdul Wahid as-Shaibani, commonly known as Ibn Asir. and was born in CE 1160 in the Jazirat ibn Umar, an island on the Tigris above Mosul. This book is quite famous in Islamic scholarship.
Khalifa Al-Mahdi (CE 775-785)
Barada (Gujarat) “In the year 159 (CE 776) Al Mahdi sent an army by sea under Abdul Malik bin Shahabul Musammai to India… They proceeded on their way and at length disembarked at Barada. When they reached the place they laid siege to it… The town was reduced to extremities, and God prevailed over it in the same year. The people were forbidden to worship the Budd, which the Muhammadans burned.”
Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (CE 997-1030)
Unidentified Places (Rajasthan and Gujarat) “So he prayed to the Almighty for aid, and left Ghazni on the 10th of Shaban AH 414… with 30,000 horse besides volunteers, and took the road to Multãn. After he had crossed the desert he perceived on one side a fort full of people, in which there were wells. People came down to conciliate him, but he invested the place, and God gave him victory… So he brought the place under the sway of Islam, killed the inhabitants, and broke in pieces their images…The chief of Anhilwara called Bhim, fled hastily… Yaminu-daula again started for Somnat, and on his march he came to several forts in which were many images serving as chamberlains or heralds of Somnat, and accordingly he (Mahmud) called them Shaitan. He killed the people who were in these places, destroyed the fortifications, broke in pieces the idols and continued his march to Somnat…”
Somnath (Gujarat) “This temple of Somnat was built upon fifty-six pillars of teak wood covered with lead. The idol itself was in a chamber… Yaminuddaula seized it, part of it he burnt, and part of it he carried away with him to Ghazni, where he made it a step at the entrance of the Jami masjid…”

(10) Tarikh-i-Jahan-Kusha : The author, ‘Alauddin Malik ibn Bahauddin Muhammad Juwaini, was a native of Juwain in Khurasan near Nishapur. His father who died in CE 1253 was one of the principal revenue officers under the Mongol ruler of Persia. Alauddin followed in his father’s office. He was with Halaku during the Mongol campaign against the Ismailis and was later on appointed the governor of Baghdad. He fell from grace and was imprisoned at Hamadan. He was, however, exonerated and restored to his office which he retained till his death in AH 681 (CE 1282). His history comes down to the year CE 1255.

Sultan Jalaluddin Mankbarni (CE 1222-1231)
Debal (Sindh) “The Sultan then went towards Dewal and Darbela and Jaisi… The Sultan raised a Jami‘ Masjid at Dewal, on the spot where an idol temple stood.”

(11) Tabqat-i-Nasiri : The author, Maulana Abu Umr Usman Minhajuddin bin Sirajuddin al-Juzjani, was born in CE 1193. In 1227 he arrived in Uccha where he was placed in charge of Madrasa-i-Firuzi. He presented himself to Sultan Shamsuddin Iltutmish when the latter came to Uccha in 1228. The same year he accompanied Iltutmish to Delhi and joined the expedition to Gwalior, which city was placed in his charge. He returned to Delhi in 1238 and took charge of Madrasa-i-Nasiriya. His fortune brightened after Nasiruddin became the Sultan in 1246; he was appointed Qazi-i-mamalik in 1251. His history starts with Adam and comes down the year 1260.

Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (CE 997-1030)
Somnath (Gujarat) “When Sultan Mahmud ascended the throne of sovereignty, his illustrious deeds became manifest unto all mankind within the pale of Islam when he converted so many thousands of idol temples into masjids… He led an army to Nahrwalah of Gujarat, and brought away Manat, the idol, from Somnath, and had it broken into four parts, one of which was cast before the entrance of the great Masjid at Ghaznin, the second before the gateway of the Sultan’s palace, and the third and fourth were sent to Makkah and Madinah respectively.” The translator comments in a footnote: “Among the different coins struck in Mahmud’s reign one bore the following inscription: ‘The right hand of the empire, Mahmud Sultan, son of Nasir-uddin Subuk-Tigin, Breaker of Idols.’ This coin appears to have been struck at Lahore, in the seventh year of his reign.”
Sultan Shamsuddin Iltutmish (CE 1210-1236)
Vidisha (Madhya Pradesh) “After he returned to the capital in the year AH 632 (CE 1234) the Sultan led the hosts of Islam toward Malwah, and took the fortress and town of Bhilsan, and demolished the idol-temple which took three hundred years in building and which, in altitude, was about one hundred ells.”
Ujjain (Madhya Pradesh) “From thence he advanced to Ujjain-Nagari and destroyed the idol-temple of Mahakal Diw. The effigy of Bikramjit who was sovereign of Ujjain-Nagari, and from whose reign to the present time one thousand, three hundred, and sixteen years have elapsed, and from whose reign they date the Hindui era, together with other effigies besides his, which were formed of molten brass, together with the stone (idol) of Mahakal were carried away to Delhi, the capital.” Among his “Victories and Conquests” is counted the “bringing away of the idol of Mahakal, which they have planted before the gateway of the Jami Masjid at the capital city of Delhi in order that all true believers might tread upon it.”

continued in part 6

part 1: enslavement of non-Muslims

part 4: actual role of Sufis in conversion


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5 Responses to “How Islam came to India and why now it needs to go from India – 5 – cultural destruction of non-Muslims”

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This is for Sabature who has sent me a very long comment and he is most welcome to publish his comment on his own website after giving a link to this post on my page:

(1) well you are really incorrigible! as usual you do not address or completely avoid the incidents being described by Islamic scholars on how they themselves think Islam spread in India.

(2) If all of the violence, being mentioned is imagination or boasting and not sanctioned by Islam what is it that makes them persist in proclaiming such acts as glory to Islam?(!)

(3) A couple of historian’s opinions or doubts about the violent spread of Islam without suffficient concrete logic about why they think the spread was peaceful, is not worth wasting time on. We know of many such historians – and you can read about their methods on my Histroy of India page.

(4) As for the relevant other questions based on current observations you have raised, you will find answers in due course as my series advances. But you may not like at all what actual archaelogical and textual analysis says about the myth of a peaceful Islamic multiplication – a theory mainly developed during the Cold War because of Western delusion that Islam would be the best immunization against liberal or progressive popular movements.

hello, i just stumbled on to these pages. i have not read yet read all of them, but am going to. where is the part one of ‘how islam came to india…’?


Dear,How are you.My name is Chemban Jalal.Chem
ban is our family name in Kerala.1000 yrs old
family.We believe our roots from Basra Shaiban
family reached Kerala with Malik bn al dinar.
If you can find more details pls mail to me.

please entre book refrnces and print in urdu langauge

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