How Islam came to India and why now it needs to go from India -3

Posted on August 21, 2008. Filed under: Hindu, India, Muslims, Politics |

The sack of Somnath in particular came to be considered a specially pious exploit because of its analogy with the destruction of idol of Al Manat in Arabia by the Prophet. This explains the lavish panegyric of Mahmud by Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi, and especially the early Sufi [who were very peaceful converters of Indians to Islam according to the Thaparite School of Indian history] poets like Sanai and Attar, or narrators as Awfi. After the Somnath expedition (1026 C.E.), “a deed which had fired the imagination of the Islamic world”, Caliph al-Qadir Billah himself celebrated the victory with great pomp and ceremony and sent Mahmud a very complimentary letter giving him the title of Kahf-ud-daula wa al-Islam, thereby formally recognizing him as the “ruler of Hindustan”. Mahmud for the first time issued his coins from Lahore only after this second commendation from the Caliph in connection with the “destruction of Somnath”.

Mahmud extracted 2,50,000 dinars as ransom from Jayapal (1001-02 C.E.). Jayapal’s necklace worth 2,00,000 gold dinars was appropriated by Mahmud, and twice that value extracted from the necklaces of his imprisoned or executed relatives. All the wealth of Bhera which was “as wealthy as imagination can conceive”, was captured in (1004-05 C.E.). In 1005-06 the people of Multan were forced to pay an indemnity of the value of 20,000,000 silver dirhams. When Nawasa Shah, who had reconverted to Hinduism, was deposed (1007-08), the Sultan confiscated his wealth amounting to 400,000 dirhams. Mahmud seized coins of the value of 70,000,000 Hindu Shahiya dirhams, from the fort of Bhimnagar in Kangra, and gold and silver ingots weighing some hundred maunds, jewellery and precious stones. There was also a collapsible house of silver, thirty yards in length and fifteen yards in breadth, and a canopy (mandapika) supported by two golden and two silver poles. This vast treasure could not be shifted immediately, and Mahmud left two of his “most confidential” chamberlains, Altuntash and Asightin, to arrange for its gradual removal to Ghazni. In subsequent expeditions (1015-20) Punjab and the adjoining areas were sucked dry. Over and above the looting by Mahmud, there was additional looting by his soldiers. From Baran Mahmud obtained, 1,000,000 dirhams, from Mahaban a large booty, from Mathura five idols which when melted [Should we apply the Thaparite algorithm of dividing by 10 or 100?] alone yielded 98,300 misqals (about 390 kg) of gold, and two hundred silver idols. Kanauj, Munj, Asni, Sharva and some other places yielded another 3,000,000 dirhams. Somnath yielded 20,000,000 dinars. [Utbi, the Secretary to Sultan Mahmud, reports this and if he exaggerated then as this was a contemporary record, the Caliphate would come to know of this and would be able to calculate that Mahmud had not sent full share of the Caliph. This is a part usually not much mentioned by the Thaparite School and generically dismissed as part of boasting. However it is important to note that this starts the long and economically devastating drainage of capital out of India, and the increasing rate of such drainage of capital throughout Muslim dominance and the final acceleration under the Mughals. India was hardly given the chance to recover by the British, which is not however our ambit here. What is significant is to note the role of Muslim exploitation in the 1000 year long economic decline of India which is usually suppressed in the Thaparite reconstruction of Indian history and allows the gloating recreation of the image of modern India as a “backward country full of flies and beggars” with the blame variously laid at the feet of Brahminical exploitation, a pagan superstitious religion, or inherently primitive and backward ethnicity. We will see subsequently how the basic inability of the Islamic mind in comprehending sophistication and extreme insecurity and jealousy of more advanced societies prevented them from utilizing the advanced forms of Indian economic processes and basically continue in their marginal desert culture of looting of Kafelas or subsisting by looting more productive populations].

Archaeologically there is a significant absence of Indian coins or artefacts made of precious metal from this entire period in the Punjab and Sind area. [The Thaparite school of Indian history typically remains silent on this or jokes that this could be a possible pointer that the stories of these Hindu kingdoms with fabulous riches are simply stories and fantasies and they probably never existed. In this sense nothing contemporary specifically archaeologically associated with the early founders of Islam including its Prophet has been found in Arabia. However the Thaparite school will never dare raise a similar joke in the Arabian context. This also helps the Thaparite school in trying to prove that “Hinduism” did not exist in general before the pre-Islamic period. However it is a general principle of the Thaparite School to accept archaeology only if it supports the Schools hypothesis and it very angrily reacts and disparages archaeology if it dares to differ from its diktats] The flow of bullion outside India stablized Ghaznavid currency and debased the Indian. The gold content of millenial north Indian coins reduced from 120 to 60 grams with a similar reduction in the weight and content of the silver coin. This in turn reduced credit of Indian merchants in the international market.

India had always been an exporter against bullion and had accumulated bullion from domestic sources as well mines of Tibet and Central Asia. Removal of skilled artisans as slaves, decimation of adult male populations, destruction of the social productive structures including removal of women and reproductive resources of the populations, destroyed internal production and the domestic market, and trade networks. One reason prompting Anandpal to send an embassy to Mahmud at Ghazni with favourable terms to the Sultan (C. 1012) was to try to normalize trade facilities, and after an agreement “caravans (again) travelled in full security between Khurasan and Hind.”

Mahmud collected in loot and tribute valuable articles of trade like indigo, fine muslins, embroidered silk, and cotton stuffs, and items and raw ingots of famous Indian steel, lavishly praised by Utbi, Hasan Nizami, Alberuni and others. [this is the source of the famous Damascus steel coveted by both by Europe and the Muslim world. As is typical with the Muslims, they never acknowledged the debt they owed Indians for technology and intellectual achievements such as mathematics which they are usually most careful in claiming as their own inventions – leading to the so called nomenclature of Arabic numerals in the West] One valuable commodity taken from India was indigo. From Baihaqi, who writes the correct Indian word “nil” for the dye, it appears that 20,000 mans (about 500 maunds) of indigo was taken to Ghazna every year. According to Baihaqi, Sultan Masud once sent 25,000 mans (about 600 maunds) of indigo to the Caliph at Baghdad, for “the Sultans often reserved part of this (valuable commodity) for their own usage, and often sent it as part of presents for the Caliph or for other rulers”.

What was the record of these peaceful holiday visitors of Islam in their own words about their leisure activities? The chief of Thanesar (modern Kurukshetra) was “obstinate in his infidelity and denial of Allah, so the Sultan marched against him with his valiant warriors, for the purpose of planting the standards of Islam and extirpating idolatry. The blood of the infidels flowed so copiously that the stream was discoloured, and people were unable to drink it. Praise be to Allah for the honour he bestows upon Islam and Musalmans.” At Sirsawa near Saharanpur, “The Sultan summoned the most religiously disposed of his followers, and ordered them to attack the enemy immediately. Many infidels were consequently slain or taken prisoners in this sudden attack, and the Musalmans paid no regard to the booty till they had satiated themselves with the slaughter of the infidels. The friends of Allah searched the bodies of the slain for three whole days, in order to obtain booty”.

Alberuni, an eyewitness of Mahmud’s destruction of the Hindu Shahiya dynasty of Punjab writes about its kings that “in all their grandeur, they never slackened in their ardent desire of doing that which is right, they were men of noble sentiments and noble bearing”. On the other hand, Mahmud’s “sole business was to wage war against the Thakurs and Rajas (whereby) Mahmud sought to make the plunder of Hindustan a permanent affair”. The Indians were horrified by an “inopportune display of religious bigotry, and indulgence in women and wine”. In such a situation, “Hindu sciences retired away from those parts of the country conquered by us, and fled to Kashmir, Benaras and other places”.[Al Beruni- this is an important indication of why Indian intellectual development stagnated from the advent of Islam in India. In fact the famous universities with international fame, were systematically destroyed, the general educational system obliterated, and insecurity shut up women within the house and for the first time in the long history of women’s education in pre-Islamic India, women were almost completely excluded from education]

Mahmud also started the later consistent Islamic traditions of looting wealth and women whenever the Islamic heartlands of middle East or central Asia became “impoverished” as a result of intensive and destructive Islamic looting. Utbi writes “It happened, that 20,000 men from Mawaraun nahr and its neighbourhood, who were with the Sultan (Mahmud), were anxious to be employed on some holy expedition in which they might obtain martyrdom. The Sultan determined to march with them to Kanauj”. This is the tradition of Ghazis, (the Arabic root means one who has gone for a Ghazwa, literally a tribal raid typically mentioned in the context of looting wealth, animals, and women) as imposed on India. Even after the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate, Muhammad Ghori declared jihad in “Hind” (1205 C.E.- 13 years after the second battle of Tarain, decisively destroying his strongest Hindu opponent Prithviraj), “in order to repair the fortunes of his servants and armies; for within the last few years, Khurasan, on account of the disasters it had sustained, yielded neither men nor money. When he arrived in Hind, God gave him such a victory that his treasures were replenished, and his armies renewed”. Fourteen Ghaznavids ruled at Lahore and surrounding regions for nearly two centuries.This Muslim base shrank and deteriorated, but a core of the Islamic theocracy had been established around Multan and served as the bulkhead for the next stage of central Asian Islamic expansion into the subcontinent.

Following Mahmud’s death in Ghazni on 20 April 1030 at the age of sixty his two sons Muhammad and Masud fought for the throne but Masud won and replaced the governor of Punjab with Ahmad Niyaltigin. Niyaltigin attacked Benaras looting the markets of the drapers, perfumers and jewellers and obtained immese booty in gold, silver, and jewels. This raised the jealousy of Masud who declared a “Jihad” on “Hindustan” and attacked India by way of Kabul in November 1037. Hansi was stormed and sacked in February the next year, but in his absence Tughril Beg, the Seljuk Turk, sacked a portion of Ghazni town and seized Nishapur (now in Iran) in 1037. Khurasan was rapidly falling before the Seljuks and western Persia was becoming independent of Ghazni. In India 80,000 Hindus under Mahipal seized Lahore in 1043, but retreated on arrival of the Ghaznavid army. The Seljuks bypassed unproductive Afghanistan, expanding to modern Turkey but a small insignificant tribe of the rugged hills of Ghor lying between Ghazni and Herat, with their castle of Firoz Koh (Hill of Victory) who had submitted to Mahmud in 1010 C.E. and had joined his army on his Indian campaign rose in rebellion. To take revenge of the death of two brothers at the hands of the Ghazni ruler, a third, Alauddin Husain, coverran the kingdom and burnt down the new capital of Ghazni built by Mahmud at the cost of seven million gold coins(1151), earning him the title of Jahan-soz (world burner). The graves of the dynasty were dug up and scattered, but the tomb of Mahmud, “the idol of Muslim soldiers” was spared [outside modern Ghazni only that tomb and two minarets one of which still boasts the titles of the idol-breaker remains of the wealth looted from India].

Alauddin, died in 1161, and his son two years later, and his nephew, Ghiyasuddin bin Sam, became the chief of Ghor. He brought order to Ghazni and established his younger brother Muizuddin on the ruined throne of Mahmud (1173-74). Ghiyasuddin ruled at Firoz Koh and Muizuddin at Ghazni [is commonly known by three names as Muizuddin bin Sam, Shihabuddin Ghori and Muhammad Ghori]. Muhammad Ghori now had Alberuni’s India and Burhanuddin’s “Hidaya”, not available to previous invaders. Alberuni’s work provided to Islamic world information on Hindu religion, Hindu philosophy, and sources of civil and religious law. Hindu sciences of astronomy, astrology, knowledge of distance of planets, and solar and lunar eclipses, physics and metaphysics, ideas on matrimony and human biology, Hindu customs and ceremonies, their cities, kingdoms, rivers and oceans are all described. Hidaya, the most authentic work on the laws of Islam compiled by Shaikh Burhanud-din Ali in the twelfth century, claims to have studied all earlier commentaries on the Quran and the Hadis belonging to the schools of Malik, Shafi and Hanbal besides that of Hanifa. The Hidaya is quite explicit in how non-Muslims should be treated and the military manuals of strategy like the Siyasat Nama and the Adab-ul-Harb [these three gems are constantly referred to by Islamic chroniclers of this time and should be read by modern non-Muslims to get a flavour of Islamic ethics of this period with regards to warfare and treatment of non-Muslims] make a formidable combination. Ghori led his first expedition to Multan and Gujarat in 1175. Three years later he again marched by way of Multan, Uchch and the arid Thar desert toward Anhilwara Patan in Gujarat, but the Rajput Bhim gave him a crushing defeat (1178-79). Ghori was not disheartened and annexed Peshawar (ancient Hindu Purushpur) in 1180 and marched to Lahore in 1181. Two more expeditions in 1184 and 1186-87, finally brought him Lahore. By false promise Khusrau Malik, a prince of the Ghaznavid dynasty, was induced to come out of the fortress, was taken prisoner and sent to Ghazni, and executed in 1201. Ghori systematically executed all survivors of the dynasty of Mahmud Ghaznavi [Compare with the Ummayad and Abbasid struggle for power among brothers of the Islamic brotherhood, which led to the only survivor of the previous regime to seek his fortune in Spain]. In 1188 Ghori invaded the Chahamana kingdom and sacked the fort of Bhatinda killing the adult Hindu male populace and carried out a systematic public rape and subsequent enslavement of the women. Hindu refugees flocked around Delhi alarming Prithviraj. Ghori had already been defeated by Solanki Rajputs in Gujarat, and made elaborate preparations before marching towards the Punjab in 1191 C.E. He captured Bhatinda, which had been retaken by the Rajputs from its Ghaznavid governor, and placed it under Qazi Ziyauddin Talaki with a contingent of 1200 horse. Before returning to Ghazni he learnt that Prithviraj Chauhan, the Rajput ruler of Ajmer-Delhi, was coming with a large force to attack him. Ghori encountered Prithviraj at Tarain or Taraori, about ten kilometers north of Karnal. The Rajput army comprised hundreds of elephants and a few thousand horse. The Muslims were overwhelmed and their left and right wings were broken. In the centre, Muhammad Ghori charged at Govind Rai, the brother of Prithviraj, and shattered his teeth with his lance. But Govind Rai drove his javelin through the Sultan’s arm, and Ghori’s life was saved only by a Khalji Turk. His army retreated and Prithviraj besieged Bhatinda but Ziyauddin held out for thirteen months before he capitulated.

At Ghazni, Muhammad held the Ghori, Khalji and Khurasani amirs responsible for his defeat. They were paraded through the city with sacks full of oats tied to their necks. The Sultan himself was overcome with such shame that he would “neither eat nor drink nor change garments till he had avenged himself”. Next year he marched against India with full preparations and with a force of one hundred and two thousand Turks, Persians and Afghans. From Lahore, he invited Prithviraj “to make his submission and accept Islam” and raising an equally arrogant reply. The Rajput army was far superior in numbers. Prithviraj had succeeded in enlisting the support of about one hundred Rajput princes who rallied round his banner with their elephants, cavalry and infantry. Firishta writes that Prithviraj’s reply to Ghori had promised no harm if Ghori retreated. Ghori, as is typical in Islamic commanders, following the Quranic decree that “war is deception” replied: “I have marched into India at the command of my brother whose general I am. Both honour and duty bind me to exert myself to the utmost… but I shall be glad to obtain a truce till he is informed of the situation and I have received his answer.” The Hindus fell into the trap. Of the five divisions of Ghor’s army, four composed of mounted archers, were instructed to attack (by turns) the flanks and, if possible, the rear of the Hindus, but to avoid hand to hand conflicts and, if closely pressed, to pretend flight. Ghori mounted a surprise attack early at dawn when the Indians were busy in their morning ablutions forcing the Hindus to fight on empty stomach. Firishta records “The Sultan made preparations for battle… and when the Rajputs had left their camp for purposes of obeying calls of nature, and for the purpose of performing ablutions, he entered the plain with his ranks marshalled. Although the unbelievers were amazed and confounded, still in the best manner they could, they stood the fight. ”Explaining the reason for the empty stomach Dr. Jadunath Sarkar writes: “It was the Hindu practice to prepare for the pitched battle by waking at 3 O’clock in the morning, performing the morning wash and worship, eating the cooked food (pakwan) kept ready before hand, putting on arms and marching out to their appointed places in the line of battle before sunrise. But in the second battle of Naraina (also called Tarain, Taraori) the Rajputs could take no breakfast; they had to snatch up their arms and form their lines as best as they could in a hurry and fought the Turko-Afghan army from 9 o’clock in the morning to 3 o’clock in the afternoon at the end of which the Hindus were utterly exhausted from the fighting, hunger and thirst.”

When Ghori realized that the Rajput army was sufficiently weary, he charged their centre with 12,000 of his best cavalry and the Rajputs were completely defeated. Govind Rai was killed, and Prithviraj was captured and beheaded and huge spoils fell into the hands of the Muslim army. Sirsuti, Samana, Kuhram and Hansi were captured in quick succession with ruthless massacre and a general destruction of temples and building of mosques. The Sultan then marched to Ajmer and repeated his Islamic actions. Ajmer was made over to a son of Prithviraj on promise of punctual payment of tribute [ probably because Ghori was not yet certain of his strength this far from his main power base]. Delhi was occupied under the command of Qutbuddin Aibak who was to act as Ghori’s representative in India.

The Gahadvala Jayachandra had not come to the aid of Prithviraj hoping, that after the defeat of the Chauhan ruler, a rival, [reputed also to have had stolen the heart of his daughter who eloped with Prithviraj] he himself would become unchallenged master of northern India. Ghori marched from Ghazni in 1193 at the head of fifty thousand horse and gave a crushing defeat to Jayachandra on the Yamuna between Chandwar and Etah, and annexed Kanauj and Varanasi. At Kol (Modern Aligarh), “Those of the horizon who were wise and acute were converted to Islam, but those who stood by their ancestoral faith were slain with the sword…20,000 prisoners were taken and made slaves. Three bastions were raised as high as heaven with their heads and their carcases became food for the beasts of prey. At Kalinjar 50,000 prisoners were taken as slaves. Kamil-ut-Tawarikh of Ibn Asir records, “The slaughter of Hindus (at Varanasi) was immense; none were spared except women and children,(who were taken into slavery) and the carnage of men went on until the earth was weary.”

The Muslim chroniclers describe with great glee and in explicit details about the systematic execution of adult males, public rape of women and their eventual enslavement, with great details of torture before execution or during rape. The strategy of Islamic invaders always rely on deception and they do not follow any ethical code of conduct in war or in treatment of non-combatants or prisoner of wars. It is not as if the Muslim world is ignorant of such code of conduct, for even now pro-Islamic scholars point out with immense emotion on the latest western documentaries on the Crusades that Saladin and the Muslim world in general were horrified by the treatment of Muslim prisoners of war by Richard Lionheart – in exactly the same historical period. That Muslims have not given up on this double standards was amply proved in the 1971 war between Pakistan and India on the eastern front, where enforced prostitution, organized rape, and enslavement of women for sex was practised widely by the Pakistani army, and targeted primarily the women of non-Muslims such as Hindus. The Thaparite School argues that no records of trauma on the side of victims are available, therefore no trauma existed. It is obvious from the descriptions of the Muslim chroniclers that the intellectual elite class was specifically targeted, “the shaven headed But-prasts” (buddhists) or the “black faced Hindoo priests” were inevitably slaughtered, as they would be relatively useless for hard work and slavery – the only thing the Muslims understood as valuable. A huge amount of books and manuscripts were deliberately destroyed, and on certain occasions it is recorded that commanders searched in vain for someone who could read the strange symbols in manuscripts remaining in the smouldering ruins of a sacked city, but being told that all who could read or write had been executed. Mahmud also removed an immense number of books and manuscripts [ one of the few “facts” in Islamic chronicles apparently thought to be reliable and not a boast by the Thaparite School and prominently propagated as undisputed proof of Mahmud’s erudition and respect for scholarship – although unfortunately none of these “taken from India” manuscripts are available archaeologically traceable to Ghazni] which if true would mean an immense loss of textual material and records used in education and Indian academics.

We will take up the systematic cultural destruction programme undertaken by the Muslim invaders in the next part:

Part 4:

part 1: enslavement of non-Muslim Indians


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8 Responses to “How Islam came to India and why now it needs to go from India -3”

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For some views on this from the “inside” look at And here is just one quote from the Hadiths about POWS :
Sunaan Abu Dawud:

Book 38, Number 4390:

Narrated Atiyyah al-Qurazi:

I was among the captives of Banu Qurayzah. They (the Companions) examined us, and those who had begun to grow hair (pubes) were killed, and those who had not were not killed. I was among those who had not grown hair.
After executing all the adult male Jews, Muhammad sent Sa’d b. Zayd al-Ansari with some captive women and children from the B. Qurayzah to Najd to sell them in the slave market. While we do not have an accurate price of a female slave during that time, Ibn Sa’d writes that Khadijah, Muhammad’s first wife, bought her slave, Zayd b. Haritha, (who would later become Muuhammad’s adopted son), for four hundred Dirhams at the slave market of Ukaz, Mecca. [the price of young slave varied from five hundred dirhams to eight hundred dirhams – Sunaan Abu Dawud hadith numbers, 3946 and 4563]. Among the captive was a young woman called Rayhanh bt. ‘Amr b. Khunafah and took her as his concubine. It is said that when Muhammad offered to make her his wife by embracing Islam, she declined. She preferred to remain a concubine to becoming a Muslim and said, “Messenger of God, rather leave me in your possession [as a concubine], for it is easier for me and for you.”.

Look at my post on Karadzic and “Genocide of Bani Qurayzah Jews by Muhammad-February-March, 627” for a more detailed account.

The website you have provided is not an authentic source used by Muslims and is Banned by the AUQAF (Muslim religious body all Muslims follow) Because it fabricates stories on its own…

Have you actual done any research on your own?

Dear Sabature,
I am aware that Ali Sina’s website is banned in several Islamic countries. However, there has been academic research on the topic of ex-Muslims, but because of the sensitivity of the topic, and for very obvious security concerns such research is not usually highlighted. If you have electronic access to MUSE or the SSRN (Social Sciences Research Network) you can search for this on your own. Given your current position within an Islamic country, I would rather not cause you any trouble by giving explicit references. I personally know of several Muslims who have left Islam who now live outside of their country of origin, and there are a significant and growing number of well documented cases in India. Are you tempted? Anyway, hopefully we will have a less bitter exchange in the future!

Hey, I was cruising through and found your blogs on Indian history, and I have learned a lot here.

Have you got a compiled list of books, references, and sources for this material? I would love to read it with a healthy scepticism and learn more about Indian history.

I will try to make up a resource page on history, as there has been several requests for such. Please bear with me!

Thanks mate, send me an email or post the list here when it’s done.

I’m the kind of person who’s bought into the blame and shame game that’s been a part of the west for decades (i.e; Europeans are the only slave traders, colonialism is the reason most evil exists in third world countries today, etc…), yet as I’ve aged, I’ve learned more about history and realised that all cultures have done evils in the past, and some of which affect the present.

It seems funny how muslims go on about African slavery and British India, when most western powers did that for a few centuries and politically changed soon after to where it is today. Muslims have been enslaving African natives for over a thousand years, enslaving millions of concubines and eunuchs worldwide, and estimates go as high as 100 million slaves.

Kind of shines a light on the obvious hypocrisy, and how muslims bury any memory of previous cultures of where they inhabit today.

Hope these cheaters get a lesson . I pray to God that India comes back to its rich state once again. All non muslims should unite and fight these illiterate region. I urge if this is exactly pictured as a film and all wider community is known. i would salute such courageous and intelligent man to take this and make a movie for the wider community.

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